Электронный журнал Арктика и антарктика - №1 за 2020 год - Содержание, список статей - ISSN: 2453-8922 - Издательство NotaBene
Arctic and Antarctica
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Arctic and Antarctica" > Contents of Issue № 01/2020
Contents of Issue № 01/2020
Arctic ice
Fedorov V.M., Grebennikov P.B., Frolov D.M. - Analysis of satellite data on dynamics of the extent of sea ice due to insolation contrast pp. 1-11


Abstract: On the basis of theoretical calculations of insolation and Earth remote sensing data on the dynamics of the sea ice area in the Arctic Ocean, a close relationship between long-term changes in the sea ice area and annual insolation contrast in the Northern hemisphere was determined. The change in insolation contrast was generalized (in terms of the source and sink of heat) reflects the change in the meridional insolation gradient that regulates the meridional heat transfer in the ocean - atmosphere system. The regression model was used to make an estimated forecast of changes in the area of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. According to our estimates, the reduction of the average annual sea ice extent in the Arctic Ocean in 2050 will be 18.3% relative to 2018. The Maximum area (March) will be reduced by 10.1%, and the Minimum area (September) by 60.3%. The decrease in the area of sea ice is associated with an increase in the meridional gradient of insolation and meridional heat transfer resulting from a decrease in the inclination of the Earth's rotation axis in the present epoch.
Shabanova N., Shabanov P. - Amderma open water period characteristics based on satellite observation of the sea ice concentration, archives for the 1979-2018 period pp. 12-22


Abstract: The aim of this study is to estimate the Amderma station (the Kara Sea) ice-free period using sea ice concentration satellite datasets in comparison to observation data. The work follows the research performed for the Western Coast of the Yamal (Marresalya) being the part of the Arctic coastal dynamics study. The OSISAF, JAXA and NSIDC (resolution 25 km, 1 day, 1979-2018) sea ice concentration datasets were used to characterize the water area adjacent to the station within the 30-50 km radius. The threshold (15%-concentration) and the author's "sliding window" methods were used to detect open water start and end dates. According to the satellite data, the ice-free period in the 30-50-kilometer water area along the Amderma coast is shifted by 2-3 weeks closer to December if compared to observations. At Amderma station (in the contrast to Marresalya), there are no significant trends in ice-free period start dates. On the adjacent water area, the destruction of the ice cover occurs earlier by 3-6 weeks if compared to the 1980’s, and the end date by 3-6 weeks later. The duration of the open water period over 40 years has increased by 32-36 days at the station and by 52-120 days (40-100%) in the adjacent water area.
Permafrost and ground ice of the Arctic, Antarctic and mountain regions
Vasil'chuk Y.K. - Some clear evidences of the intrasedimental origin of massive ice in northern Eurasia pp. 23-34


Abstract: Massive ice is widespread on the territory of modern of Eurasian permafrost area: in the north of Western Siberia, Taimyr, Chukotka, and Arctic islands. Their thickness reaches 45-50m. The origin of massive ice is difficult to define due to the equifinality of such two different processes as intrasedimental freezing and formation of glacial ice. In both cases, thick massive ice is formed in various ways, but with the same final appearance. Three important aspects that show the evidence of the intrasedimental origin of massive ice in the north of Eurasia are examined. At first glance, they are obvious, but still fell out of sight of paleogeocryologists. It is shown that: 1) Any currently existing Late Pleistocene glacier, or part of it located under Holocene ice, have not yet been found within the Eurasian Arctic or on the Arctic islands with ice sheets, nor in the mountainous regions. 2) The isotopic composition of the vast majority of massive ice found in northern Eurasia is quite "Holocene", whereas in the north of Canada and Alaska, ice with a very light isotopic composition can often be found. 3) It should be taken into account that massive ice is found in the Holocene sediments of Western Siberia and Chukotka, where there is no reason to assume the glaciers spread to the plains.
Chizhova J.N., Vasil'chuk Y.K. - Difficulties in the isotopic indication of the genesis Yamal's massive ice. Part 2. Kharasavey pp. 35-56


Abstract: Massive ice, located at different depths in the permafrost of the Kharasavey gas condensate field, many massive ice formations occurred in different forms such as layers, lenses and laccoliths. Massive ice near the Kharasavey village was repeatedly studied and tested in detail, and ice formations were found both within the first sea terrace and within the third sea terrace. The isotopic and chemical composition of massive ice can be explained by different ways. We believe that it indicates intrasedimental formation of massive ice. This study is based on data on the values of δ18О, δ2H and dexc in massive ice, as well as the chemical composition of the ice to establish possible conditions for the massive ice formation. Geochemical studies of sediments within the coastal areas of the Kharasavey showed that variability in the distribution of salts in sediments reaches a maximum here, especially in the transition zone from sea to land. The isotopic and chemical characteristics of the ice indicate that ice had been formed in an open system (i.e., with free flow of water from the reservoir). At the same time, the water in the reservoir was changed; at the first stages, it was most likely a mixture of sea and fresh water, which was subsequently desalinated more and more.
Landscapes of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
Kuznetsova A.O., Ivanova A.A., Slagoda E.A., Tikhonravova Y.V. - Stable isotopes of carbon in modern plants of tracts of the key terrain of Marre-Sale (Western Yamal) pp. 57-74


Abstract: Studies of the dependence of the accumulation of stable carbon isotopes on the growing conditions in modern plant species of tundra are very relevant. It was discovered that the same plant species accumulate the stable 13C isotope in different ways. The goal of this work is to reveal the relationship between the content of the stable 13C isotope in modern plants and the natural conditions of typical terrains of the tundra of the Western Yamal. At the geocryological station Marre-Sale, modern plant species were selected that grow under conditions of different moisture and remoteness from the sea. Modern plant species were determined using determinant atlases, carbon isotope contents using a DELTA V Advantage isotope mass spectrometer in the laboratory of LBIT (IMCES SB RAS). In different tracts, for identical plants the distribution of carbon isotopes depending on moisture was confirmed: the heavier 13С accumulates in dry ones, and lighter in humid and moist ones. It was determined that near the sea, the same plants of dry and wet tracts accumulate heavier 13С due to the influence of marine aerosols.
Soils of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
Vasil'chuk A.C., Vasil'chuk J.Y., Budantseva N.A., Vasil'chuk Y.K., Terskaya E.V., Krechetov P.P., Bludushkina L.B. - Carbon and nitrogen ratio in the soils of the lithalsa landscapes in Sentsa River valley, East Sayan pp. 75-97


Abstract: The subject of this study is the ratio of carbon and nitrogen content in the soil of the lithalsa landscape in the Sentsa River valley. The focus is on the spatial distribution of C/N ratio in the genetic soil horizons: humus (A), illuvial (B), the parent rock(C), as well as in the buried peat horizon (T). The carbon and nitrogen content is analyzed in 70 samples using the element analyzer C, H, N, S –O EA 1110. Sample preparation included drying the soil through a sieve and grinding it with a rubber pestle in a porcelain mortar. It is found that cryogenic concentration of soil solutions, cryogenic heaving, thermokarst, zoogenic turbations, peat burial, and alluvial loam deposition are the main processes determining the peculiarity of soil formation within lithalsa landscapes. The maximum variation in the ratio of carbon and nitrogen content is observed in the illuvial horizon, while in the humus horizon and in the parent rock, as well as in the buried peat horizon, this indicator is of a smaller range.
Grounds of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
Marakhtanov V.P. - Cryogenic deformations of pumping station building at Zapolyarnoye field pp. 98-118


Abstract: The subject of the study was to determine the causes of long-term deformation of the structures of technological equipment inside the building of the pumping station that supplies water to the industrial facilities and residential buildings of the infrastructure of the Zapolyarnoye oil and gas condensate field, located in the permafrost zone of Western Siberia, near the Arctic Circle. The main objectives of the study were to identify the mechanism of these deformations and develop practical recommendations for stabilizing structures and preventing their further destruction based on the analysis of the results. The survey was carried out using a set of methods provided for by the current legislation (visual and measurement control, geodetic works, thermometric observations in wells). The current situation at objects of such importance at the time of our study had no analogues. Analysis of the results of the structure inspection leads to the conclusion that the cause of the deformations were miscalculations in the design, construction and operation of the structure. The construction should be done with participation of specialists in the field of permafrost engineering.
Sal'va A.M. - Engineering and geological features of the soil section of the main water pipeline route in Central Yakutia pp. 119-131


Abstract: The object of this study is the permafrost soils of the section of the route of the main water pipeline «Tabaga-Byuteidyakh» in rural areas of Central Yakutia, spanning approximately 28 kilometers. Permafrost soils are widely developed in the Southeastern part of Central Yakutia, and are located on the Leno-Amginsky interfluve. They lie in the upper part of the geological section and are underlying on the lane of the main water pipeline route, as well as fall into the foundations of engineering structures of industrial facilities and hydraulic engineering construction. The study is based on a complex of field engineering and geological surveys, as well as laboratory studies of the physical and mechanical properties of rocks. The article discusses the features of the composition, structure and properties of rocks in this area. It is noted that among the considered soils, there is a variety of granulometric types, cryogenic texture from massive to layered, with clay soils usually of higher ice content than sandy ones. Technogenic loads are also mentioned in the form of objects of the main water supply system, consisting of pumping stations, pipelines, reservoirs and channels, which lead to significant changes in the geocryological environment and surrounding landscapes.
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