Arctic and Antarctica - rubric Ground and Surface Waters of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Arctic and Antarctica" > Rubric "Ground and Surface Waters of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions"
Ground and Surface Waters of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
ALEKSEEV S., ALEKSEEVA L., ORGILIANOV A. - Geochemistry of groudwater and surface water in the Sentsa River Basin (Eastern Sayan Ridge) pp. 1-15


Abstract: The object of this research is the groundwaters and surface waters of the Sentsa River Basin. The area of explorations is situated in the Eastern Sayan hydrogeological folded region. Cold and thermal waters occur in the PR and PZ metamorphic and igneous rock. These waters are discharged through the spring series in the river valleys laid along fault zones. The main type of fieldwork was hydrogeological sampling. The analysis of the macrocomponent composition of waters was conducted in the «Geodynamics and Geochronology Center» (Institute of the Earth’s Crust SB RAS, Irkutsk), the trace element composition was determined by ICP MS on an Element-2, Finnigan MAT (Germany) at the Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry SB RAS (Irkutsk). The scientific novelty consists in the fact that this article provides not only the characteristics of chemical composition of cold and thermal waters, but also the primary data on the distribution of microelements in the ground and surface waters of the Sentsa River Basin. Groundwater (thermal and cold) are revealed to have a bicarbonate Ca-Na composition, withal river and lake waters are generally bicarbonate Ca. Thermal waters (in the Khoyto-Gol River Basin) are largely enriched in Li, Be, B, Si, Mn, Ge, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba, W and depleted in Al, P, Cu, Zn, Ag relative to surface and rainwater. The REE distribution profile in groundwater and surface waters have peculiarities that are characterized by a positive europium anomaly and the prevalence of light REE over heavy ones.
Pershin D.K., Lubenets L.F., Chernykh D.V., Biryukov R.Y., Zolotov D.V. - Open database of snow-measuring observations in the south of Western Siberia (2011-2021) and its comparison with data from stationary meteorological observations and satellite monitoring pp. 1-18


Abstract: This article provides a database of the local snow-measuring observations for three river basins in the south of Western Siberia, reviews the methodological peculiarities of the conduct of measurements, and compares the acquired data with the observations at weather stations and available satellite data (CGLS SWE). Observations were carried out in several stages over the period of ten years (2011-2021) in small river basins of Kuchuk, Kasmala, and Mayma Rivers, and reflect the transition from the West Siberian Plain to the Altai lowlands. Total of 25,000 measurements of the parameters of snow deposits (snow mass and snow storage) were made over the years. The database of snow measuring observations is accessible to public. The comparison with station and satellite data indicated significant variances, but also fairly good coherence in some reservoir basins. According to satellite data, the common to basins mean squared error of snow storages was 42.9 mm, which is slightly higher than the claimed by the product engineers (37.4 mm). The time-limited observation data on the permanent routes of weather stations demonstrated the mean squared error of snow storages of 43.5 mm. In winter period, the mean squared error of satellite data gradually increased to the period of maximum accumulation of snow in reservoir basins. Moreover, the errors of satellite data did not depend on the snowiness of the winter period; and most likely, are associated with the parameters of microstructure of the snow mass in separate seasons.
Alekseev V.R., Makarieva O.M., Nesterova N.V., Zemlyanskova A.A., Shikhov A.N., Ostashov A.A. - Aufeis ice sills of the Russian Far East according to historical data pp. 75-118


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical data on the origin, geographical distribution, seasonal and long-term variability of giant aufeis ice sills in the Russian Far East. Ice sills are the ice fields, the thickness and area of which reach up to 10-12 m and several tens of sq. km respectively. They are formed in severe climatic conditions as a result of layer-by-layer freezing of groundwater poured onto the surface. This is a distinct form of seasonal, and at times, long-term glaciation, which regulates the processes of water and energy exchange in low temperature cryolithozone, as well as determines the extent of permafrost intermittency and developmental challenges. Assessment is given on the role of aufeis ice sills in the formation of river and underground runoff, transformation of terrain, morphological structure of landscape, and development of dangerous cryogenic phenomena. This article is first to review the data on aufeis ice sills in the Russian Far East that have accumulated over the past two centuries. Three author highlights the three research periods: until 1900, since 1900 to 1950, after 1950. The latter period is the most effective, indicate the creation of the map and cadastre of giant aufeis, including more than 7,000 ice fields based on the data of aerial photography. The article establishes the key patterns of their distribution, factors and conditions of formation, relation to permafrost-hydrogeological structures, forms of terrain and climate; as well as determines the peculiarities of seasonal and long-term variability.
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