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Publications of Zhirtueva Natalia
Philosophical Thought, 2019-4
Zhirtueva N. - Synthesis of yoga ideas in the teaching of Sri Ramana Maharshi pp. 36-43


Abstract: The subject of this research is the teaching of the Indian sage Sri Ramana Maharshi, which yet did not receive sufficient coverage in the scientific literature. It is viewed in the context of processes of modernization of India’s philosophical-religious thought of the XX century, characterized by the proneness to synthesis of the ideas of various schools of Indian thought. The analysis of the teaching is conducted in accordance with the three vectors: 1) the essence of Absolute reality; 2) correlation between the ideal and material being; 3) methods of mystical psychopractice. The research methodology contains the comparative philosophical-theological analysis; comparative-analytical analysis; synthesis, generalization, individualization, historical narrative. In the teaching of Sri Ramana Maharshi, the author determined the desire to find an answer to spiritual questions of that time through synthesizing such philosophical-religious traditions as Jnana yoga and Bhakti yoga. The teaching of Maharashi is also an immanent (non-theistic) monistic mystical tradition. The basic methods of mystical practice include the meditative contemplation (Vichara, Neti neti), and the love-trust to the Absolute (Bhakti).
Philosophical Thought, 2018-9
Zhirtueva N. - The problem of integrity and unity of being in philosophical and mystical traditions of the world pp. 57-67


Abstract: The problem of integrity has always been one of the most relevant for the philosophical thought. It has multiple dimensions – ontological, gnoseological, social, and others. The subject of this research is the diversity of methods for solving the problems of unity and integrity of being in philosophical and mystical teachings, which in this article are divided in two types – immanent and transcendent-immanent. The common for both is the orientation towards the overcoming of subjective-objective attitude towards the world. Experiencing unity with the world, human gradually dispenses of contradictions and restores the integrity of personality. Based on the conducted research, the author comes to a conclusion that the immanent mysticism suggests several ways of achieving the goal: acknowledgement of coessentiality of the ideal and material; annihilation of representations on duality of ideal and material; and recognizing material as false reality. The transcendent-immanent mysticism does not eliminate the differences between the Creator and a creature, does not make them coessential or connatural. What happens is the integration of elements into a coherent whole, in which the elements preserve their individuality. The main method for achieving the global unity is love that overcomes both, the external and internal split. Human combines in himself combine creation and non-creation, and within the global scale, takes place the reunion of the entire humanity.
Philosophy and Culture, 2018-7
Zhirtueva N. - The role of mystical teachings in the history of culture and religion pp. 43-50


Abstract: The subject of this research is the phenomenon of mystical viewed in context of the history of religion and culture of mankind. Reference to the mystical experience attains special meaning at the current stage of civilizational development – the search for exiting the spiritual crisis. The “mystical” is typified as the “internal religion” opposite to the “external religion” – the religious cult and religious organization. Mysticism, being the inner part of religion, is identified with the most sacred knowledge and feelings o f a human being aimed at cognizing the Absolute. Mysticism is a conceptual core of the religious experience and the overall goal of any religious practice. Based on the conducted research, the author concludes that the evolution of religions took a path from magical to mystical. The magical (primal) religions are deprived of mystical beginning. The phenomenon of mystical occurs only within the national and world religions that recognize a human as a carrier of the absolute beginning. The peculiarity of current situation consists in the return to pre-mystical religious representations. The author determines the two types of mystical teachings – the immanent and the transcendent immanent. The importance of mystical religious first and foremost lies in development of the gnoseological abilities of a human being, and then in the revolutionary psychological transformations of mind and personality.
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-10
Zhirtueva N. - Kabbalah in the context of comparative analysis of the philosophical-mystical traditions of the world


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Kabbalah as the most well-known mystical tradition of Judaism. It is studied in the context of comparative analysis of the philosophical-mystical traditions of the world in accordance with the three fundamental positions: 1) Essence of the Absolute and the character of mystical contact with Him; 2) Correlation between the ideal and phenomenal (material) being; 3) Methods of mystical psychopractice. The article carries out a comparative analysis of the ideas of Kabbalah and other immanent mystical traditions of the world, primarily Tantrism, Advaita Vedanta, and Buddhism. Kabbalah represents an immanent pantheistic integrative mystical tradition. The Absolute is being viewed as the Wholeness, which exists by the principle “everything in one, one in everything”. Through the mystical “closeness” (Devekut) with the Absolute (Ein Sof) the egocentric consciousness is being overcome, and the global unitotality achieved. The main methods of the psychopractice of Kabbalah consist in love and trust, meditative contemplation of the Absolute, psychosomatic exercise, and disciplinary asceticism. Such psychopractive actively uses the energy cores of a person (Sephiroth). As a result, the transformation of consciousness (enlightenment) is achieved.  
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-6
Zhirtueva N. - Modifications of the Byzantine Hesychasm in the Culture of Kievan Rus, Moscovian Rus and Medieval Crimea


Abstract: The subject under research is the process of the conveyance of the ideas of Byzantine hesychasm in the culture of the medieval Rus and Crimea. The author underlines that being a mystical teaching about 'divinization' of human, hesychasm expresses the inmost essence of Orthodoxy. Since the very times of Kievan Rus, hesychasm has been the essential part of the spitirual culture of Eastern Slavic peoples, thus contributing to the development of their sanctity ideal. In this article Zhirtueva examines the stages of the perception of the ideas of Byzantine hesychasm and creative interpretation of these ideas in Kievan Rus, Moscovian Rus and Tauris. The methodology of the research involves the comparative philosopho-theological analysis. The research methods include the comparative analytical method, analysis, synthesis, generalization, inidividuation and historical narrative. As a result of the research, the author concludes that the process of the conveyance of the ideas of Byzantine hesychasm underwent the two stages in medieval Rus and Crimea. In the VIIIth - XIth centuries the two centers of Byzantine hesychasm were created as a result of the aniconic movement. Those were the so called 'cave monasteries' of Tauris and Kiev Pechersk Lavra. In the XIVth - XVth the original school of 'Moscow hesychasm' (nestyazhatelstvo or the teaching of non-possession) was created due to 'hesychasm debates'. In Old Russia hesychasm was presented as ascetic hesychasm oriented at individual 'divinization' of human and political hesychasm aimed at realizing the ideal of the conciliar unity of the mankind. 
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-4
Zhirtueva N. - Psychological and Social Vectors of Mystic Studies (Practice of Transformation of Human Being and Society)


Abstract: The object of the research in this article is a psychological and social experience of mystic studies. An interest in the phenomenon is increasing in terms of the modern spiritual crisis in the face of the threat of national, religious, political and other conflicts when the whole world safety is very vulnerable. Mystics may allow to find the universal source of all religions which is very important in the situation of the global rivalry of a great number of seekers for the truth. The research of the psychological (introvertive) and social (extravertive) experience of mystic studies makes it possible to find practical methods of transformation of human being and society. Methodology of the research is based on the comparative philosophical and religious analysis. The main research method is the comparative analysis. General scientific methods used by the researcher also include analysis, synthesis, generalization, and individualization. The author comes to the conclusion that mystic studies combined the world religious experience and devepoled a complex transformation system of the mental life of a person where all the levels of individual consciousness interact. Education of mentally healthy and self-actualized personality is the consequence of it. Mystic studies developed practical ways for the improvement of the social life on the basis of love, compassion and mutual respect. Mystic experience involves tolerant attitude to the representatives of another culture, religious confession or nationality. It sets the borders of the tolerance which is provoked by the need of an egocentric consciousness limitation.
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-3
Zhirtueva N. - The Mystical Phenomenon in Philosophy, Natural Science and Theology of the XXth - XXIth Centuries


Abstract: The research subject of the present article is the mystical phenomenon in modern philosophy, natural science and theology. Zhirtueva underlines that the interest towards mysticism is a result of the search for the way out of the anthropocentric cultural crisis as well as of a number of findings in the sphere of modern physics and psychology that have made the global academic community to revise their views. The author of the article notes that so far there hasn't been a single-value estimate of the phenomenon of mysticism. The author examines views on mysticism in materialistic and idealistic philosophy, classical and post-classical science, secular and theological religious studies. The research methodology involves a comparative philosophical and theological analysis. The following research methods have been used: comparative-analytical method, analysis and synthesis, inividuation and generalization. The main results of the research include the following solutions of the aforesaid problem. 1. Classical philosophy and science view mysticism as an illusion of consciousness and therefore deprive it of the right to be the theme for a scientific research. 2. Modern non-classical science draws an analogy between the modern scientific picture of the world and the experience of immanent mystical traditions demonstrating that it is possible to combine science and mysticism. 3. Theology approves of the true experience of transcendent immanent (antinomic) mysticism. The author also outlines a distinct differentiation between mystical perception and scientific cognition. 
Philosophical Thought, 2015-3
Zhirtueva N. - Diversity of Mystic Love in World Religious Traditions pp. 77-111


Abstract: This article studies love as a method of mystic psychopractice. Thematic justification of mystic experience is caused by recessionary events in contemporary culture. Love is discussed as one of essential conditions of a human psychic life transformation as a passage from overcoming egocentric consciousness to enlightened. There are definite differences in understanding of love essence in different mystic traditions of the East and the West. Special aspects of formation of varied traditions depend on the solution of the two questions: 1. Essence of absolute reality. 2. Correlation of the material origin and spirituality in mystic practice.Methodology of the study: comparative philosophical and religious analysis. The main method of the study: comparative analysis. General scientific methods: analysis, synthesis, generalization, individualization.The following conclusions are drawn as a result of the undertaken study. Love contributes to transformation of adept's consciousness and is a meditative contemplation of the Absolute in immanent mystic. There are the following variants of understanding the essence of love. 1. Love to true “Self” of a person, i.e. the immanent Absolute. 2. Absolute dedication and devotion to the Absolute. 3. Sympathy, loving kindness and contribution in enlightenment. 4. Sexual psychopractice that helps a man and a woman to reach enlightenment together. In transcendent immanent traditions love contributes to transformation of imperfect personality after the image and likeness of perfect God. Connectition is supposed to be between the carnal and the divine, male and female, but each of them saves their essence without dissolving in each other. Love gradually transforms into pray. Erotic love is one of the ways to form an integral person.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-2
Zhirtueva N. - Mysticism as a Psychopractice of Overcoming Ego and Raising a Self-Actualized Personality


Abstract: The research subject is a mystic experience as a psychopractice of coping with egocentric consciousness and raising a mentally sane self-actualized person. The author compares psychological peculiarities of egocentric consciousness  and enlightened consciousness. The author also examines the main psychopractical methods that help to perform the systemic work with all the levels of consciousness. The author performs a comparative analysis of peculiarities of different methods such as disciplinary asceticism, psychosomatic exercises, love-trust prayer and meditative contemplation in different mystic traditions formed within the two main types of mysticism – immanent mysticism and transcendental immanent mysticism. The research methodology is based on the comparative philosophical religious analysis. The main research method is the comparative analytical method. General scientific methods: analysis, synthesis, generalization and individualization. The following conclusions were made as a result of the research: 1.The aim of the mystic practice is a transformation from the egocentric consciousness to the enlightened consciousness. 2. While ascetic traditions deny the material origin, holistic and integrative traditions teach the necessity of the material and spiritual convergence. 3. Disciplinary asceticism deals with the will and volition of a human being, psychosomatic exercises discipline body, love-trust prayer release from egoistic feelings and wishes, and meditative contemplation makes life more deliberate. 4. Mystic psychopracticeŻ form a complex transformation system of psychic life where all the levels of individual consciousness interact.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2014-12
Zhirtueva N. -


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