Электронный журнал Психолог - №5 за 2017 год - Содержание - список статей - ISSN: 2409-8701 - Издательство NotaBene
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue № 05/2017
Contents of Issue № 05/2017
Societal passions
Shkurko T.A., Serikov G.V., Bzezian A. - The Transformation of the System of Relations with Other People Demonstrated by Russian Migrant Workers as a Result of their Psychological Acculturation in Azerbaijan pp. 12-25


Abstract: The article presents the results of the empirical research of manifestation of socio-psychological needs and relations to others demonstrated by Russian migrant workers and Azerbaijanians living in Baku. The object of the empirical study were 90 men, middle-rank managers, aged from 20-40 years, Azerbaijani (Azerbaijan citizens, 20 people) and Russians (citizens of Russia living and working in Baku, 70 people). The purpose of the research was to analyze dynamics of socio-psychological needs and attitudes to other people demonstrated by migrant working living in Azerbaijan depending on their experience in communication with indigenous citizens. To diagnose three basic socio-psychological needs (one's own and that required of others during social group interaction, control over others and building close emotional relations), the authors have used William Schutz' Interpersonal Relations Inventory adapted by A. Rukavishnikov. To diagnose the intensity and modality of relations with others, the author of the present article has used a set of methods adapted by Yu. Mendzheritsky that includes: Bunt's Manipulation Scale, Fey's Acceptance of Others Scale, Rosenberg's Faith in People Scale, Cambell's Friendliness Scale, and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (subscales: cynicism, aggression and hospitablity). The results of the research show that there are significant differences in the expression of socio-psychological needs and modalities of relations to other people as to the Azerbaijani and the Russians living and working in Baku. The dynamics of the intensity of the manifestation of socio-psychological needs and modalities of relations to others demonstrated by Russian migrant workers living in Baku is described, depending on the time of their stay in this socio-cultural environment. It is shown that changes in the system of relations with other people in Russian migrant workers are going towards building relations with others, demonstrated by the representatives of the Azerbaijani ethnic group.
Этнос и этничность
Pogontseva D.V. - Attitude Towards Women with Different Ethno-Religious Appearance pp. 26-32


Abstract: In the modern world, we are constantly confronted with situations in which people are discriminated because of their appearance. One of the forms of discrimination is ethnolookism when the evaluation of ethnocultural identity is based on an assessment of the external appearance, and this evaluation results in a certain attitude, discriminatory or tolerant. In her article Pogontseva outlines the problem of attitudes toward women in connection with ethno-religious characteristics of their appearance for example, hijab (an Islamic handkerchief covering hair and neck). The research involved 807 people (371 men and 436 women) aged 18-55 years old (the average age was 25 years) living in Rostov-on-Don, Russia. The author has used her own questionnaire consisting of an incentive material (2 sets of photographs of 5 girls, in one case it is a portrait, in full-face, taken with natural make-up, the second set - the same girls, but in black hijabs). Respondents were asked to evaluate their attitude to the girls on the photos, on a scale from friendly to hostile, and to assess the degree of acceptance of the discriminatory behavior of the Other on the basis of the girl's appearance in the photograph. Based on the results, it can be said that the hostility towards the girl in the hijab is based only on the design of their appearance. It can be also noted that while the discriminatory behavior of the Other is directed at the girl in the hijab, respondents tend to condemn this behavior less than when the discriminatory attitude is directed at the girl without the hijab. Thus, the author emphasizes that a trigger of ethnolookism can be just a cover for a head or other symbols of different cultures.
Horizons of psychology
Labunskaya V.A. - Features of Self-Attitude of Girls Participating in Castings Who Receive Different Evaluation of their Beauty pp. 33-45


Abstract: The subject of the research is the different types of self-attitudes of girls participating in castings and differing in the evaluation of their beauty by consumers. The object of research is the мisual presentation of the appearance (photos) of the girls involved in castings as well as evaluation of their appearance based on the scale of «beautiful-ugly». The study involved 50 girls aged 18 to 22 years old, participating in the casting, who had voluntarily agreed to provide images of their appearance for grading them «beautiful-ugly», and participated in psychological testing of their self-attitudes. Experts (consumers) who evaluated appearance of casting participants were 125 female students aged 18 to 22 years old. The research methodology includes the principle of linkages between physical appearance and inner world of the person. At the empirical level this principle implements the system study and evaluations of self- attitudes of outer beauty. The authr's choice to study self- attitudes of girls participating in castings was mainly determined by the fact that the appearance of the person carries information about his or her attitude to his or her self and others, and the fact that one's self- attitude is a factor regulating the entire system of relations, and positive attitude towards yourself and others is a requirement for girls participating in various types of castings. Research methods include questionnaire MRS developed by S. Pantileev, and ten-point scale «beautiful-ugly». To identify differences  inself - attitudes of girls (casting contestants) the author has applied the methods of descriptive statistics, t - criterion paired samples, and Т- test for independent samples. The main findings of the research are the conclusions that girls who were evaluated as beautiful demonstrate such qualities as self-guidance, and integral self- attitude «autosympathy». They seek to control their behavior, build on their identity, and have a clear image of their goals. Unlike the other girls participating in castings, these girls have a high level of self-acceptance, positive attitude and respect towards themselves. From the practical point of view, these results show the need to take into account the integrity of external and internal perceptions when conducting castings. 
Mind games
Yasin M.I. - Cognitive Closure and Attitudes in Interpersonal Relationships pp. 46-54


Abstract: Cognitive closure is a mechanism of cognitive activity that saves one's psyche from excessive, contradictory and needless information. This construct is widely used to describe cognitive styles and explain certain socio-psychological mechanisms, mass communications psychology and psychology of religion. Apparent cognitive closure relates to such factors as stereotypization, dogmatism, rigidity of attitudes and aggressive response to conflicts. The author makes an assumption that in order to save psyche from needless information, one may try to avoid communication, certain types of interpersonal relationships or excessive involvement. The hypothesis was experimentally proved based on the research that involved 140 people. The author has used such diagnostic tests as Cognitive Closure Orientation by A. Kruglyansky and Destructive Attitudes in Interpersonal Relationships Test by V. Boyko. The results of the research prove the following: cognitive closure and communicative attitudes are mostly related through the assertiveness parameter. Thus, assertiveness has a negative correlation with most cognitive closure factors. In the same way, accumulation of negative impressions of communication with others has a negative correlation with love for order, assertiveness and cognitive closure. 
Personal motivation and spirituality
Barykina A.I., Markelova T.V., Lobanov S.N. - V. Leontiev's Psychographic Test as an Instrument for Study of Motivation: Review of Application Experience pp. 55-66


Abstract: V. Leontiev's Psychographic Test is one of unique psychodiagnostic instruments aimed at studying features of personal motivation, aspirations and intentions. Researchers have emphasized a high diagnostical potential of V. Leontiev's Psychographic Test and have proved it to be valid and reliable. Having analysed all cases of application of V. Leontiev's Psychographic Test, the authors of this article have discovered researches of 39 authors. The highest intensity of publications and thesis defenses headed by V. Leontiev using his Psychographic Test falls on the period since 1995 till 2001, the years of the biggest professional and research activity of V. Leontiev in Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University. It is discovered that V. Leontiev's Psychographic Test has been widely used to study various aspects, factors and mechanisms of learning motivation of school students and military students as well as motivation factors and state anxiety, cognitive processes, productivity of mental processes, success and efficiency of activity. The authors of the article conclude that V. Leontiev's Psychographic Test offers a number of very important advantages that are caused, first of all, by its projective nature that allows to deeply analyze unconcious components of motivation processes reducing such negative effects as social facilitation, 'facade' effect, etc. V. Leontiev's Psychographic Test is a unique tool for studying motivation as well as an effective express test with a high level of validity, thus it can be recommended to be more frequently used for research and practical purposes. 
Psychology and pedagogics
Chernov D.N. - Actual Problems of Language Training in the "Zone of Proximal Development" of Schoolchildren pp. 67-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the language training in the "zone of proximal development" at school age. The aim of this work is analyze the possibility of using quasilanguage tools to create the training programs to Russian rules in terms of establishing of a subject-subject interaction between a teacher and a schoolchild. The origins of the use of artificial language construction for the purpose of updating the creative potential of the recipient in literature (based on the example of writings by Lewis Carroll, 'mind-bending' language of futurists, modern children's story writers) and demonstration of the significant potential of grammar to convey meaning of sentences (L. Scherba, N. Khomsky) were analyzed. It was shown that experimentation with the language rules is a natural stage of child language development (in particular, during the period of children's word creation). The analysis of the current diagnostic and training techniques that use artificial language material with the purpose of updating the language of creativity of the child was performed. In his research Chernov has come to the following conclusions. Language learning at school must actualize the creative potential of language acquisition. Effective teaching technique is the use of artificial words, rules of inflection which are similar to the Russian rules, and use of artificial sentences and texts in which the combination of quasiwords is similar to the rules of Russian grammar. The balance between spontaneous and reactive training in the use of such language material is possible when the interaction between a teacher and a schoolchild is like the cooperation in the "zone of proximal development" of the child.
Psychopathology of the mundane
Murashchenkova N., Gritsenko V., Brazhnik I. - Psychological Analysis of Expectations of Russians to Russia from the Ukraine and Other Countries pp. 77-91


Abstract: The article presents part of the results of a complex empirical research of socio-psychological adaptation of Russians migrating to Russia from other countries. The research involved 228 people (107 men and 121 women aged 17 - 63 years old, M=29.59, SD=9.54). Respondents from the Ukraine (Donetsk and Lugansk Regions) were 112 people (51 men and 61 women) and respondents from other countries (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldavia, Tadjikistan, Turkeminstan, and Uzbekistan) were 116 people (56 men and 60 women). The purpose of the research was to analyze their expectations under the conditions of their socio-psychological adaptation to living in Russia. The authors make an assumption that those who come from the Ukraine and other countries have different expectations as a result of the former's forced and fast migration caused by the military conflict in the Ukraine. Empirical data was collected using the opinion poll. In particular, the authors have analyzed data obtained using free-answer and yes-no questions that respondents answered as part of the questionnaire prepared by the authors. Data were processed using the methods of descriptive statistics, frequency and content analysis, and Fisher angular transformation (φ* criteria). As a result of this empirical research, the authors have discovered differences in migrants' expectations of those who came from the Ukraine and those who came from other countries. Migrants from the Ukraine more frequently tended to expect help and support from others than from themselves and were in a greater need of information, help with employment and accomodation. They also believed they needed compensations from the government of the country they had left and had a better idea of what help and support they could use from the receiving country to adapt to life in Russia. On the whole, expectations of the majority of those who came from the Ukraine and other countries have been satisfied. Many of them had realistic expectations and the right idea of conditions, advantages and challenges they would have in Russia which was most likely to be one of the factors of their successful adaptation (based on self-reports of respondents). However, the results have also demonstrated that respondents felt their adaptation was incomplete or were too focused on challenges and negative emotions experienced in the process of their adaptation which could cause additional emotional tension and make them seek for social and psychological assistance. Another traumatic and destructive feeling that could hinder their successful socio-psychological adaptation was their expectations of conflicts from the local population. The results of the research can be used as guidelines to improve socio-psychological adaptation of migrants as well as to create a program of psychological assistance of migrants from the former Soviet republics.
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