Электронный журнал Психолог - №6 за 2017 г. - Содержание - список статей. ISSN: 2409-8701 - Издательство NotaBene
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue № 06/2017
Contents of Issue № 06/2017
Psychology and pedagogics
Kholina O.A., Petrova E.G. - Analysis of Students' Beliefs about Interpersonal Conflicts (the Case Study of Russian and Ukranian Students) pp. 1-10


Abstract: In this article the authors provide a content-analysis of psychological literature and definitions of such concepts as 'conflict', 'interpersonal conflict' and 'communication'. The authors analyze various views on interpersonal conflicts and compare their structural elements as well as analyze types of responses. The subject of the research is the beliefs represented by students of different nationalities regarding interpersonal conflicts. The object of the research is the students of different nationalities who study at one University and communicate. The purpose of the research is to discover and compare particularities of what students of different nationalities think of interpersonal conflicts. The main research methods used by the authors include tests (Buss-Durkey Inventory and Thomas Conflict Mode Instrument), interview, content-analysis, and research results statistical processing method. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors analyze psychological particularities of students' views on interpersonal conflicts in terms of cross-cultural communication in groups of students belonging to different nationalities and studying at one University. The results of this research have demonstrated that students of both nationalities have quite adequate views on interpersonal conflicts and choose the conflict mode in accordance with their personal traits and life experience. As a result of the research, the authors describe quantitative and qualitative differences, however, these differences are statistically insignificant. 
Национальный менталитет
Artemeva O.A., Sinyova O.V. - Social Determination of Practical Psychological Currents Development in Russia in the First Half of the XX Century: Results of the Research pp. 11-20


Abstract: The authors of the present research defines the problem of social determination of the historical development of Russian practical psychology. Based on the material of the history of main currents of Russian practical psychology's development in the first half of the XX century the author proposes the historical-scientific solution of the aforesaid problem. The authors also give a brief description of the main modern approaches to defining conditions, prerequisites, factors and results of the social determination of the pedagogical, psychoanalytical and psychotechnical movements of the 1920's - early 1930's. The authors present the results of the empirical research of what has determined the development and crisis of those movements in the first half of the XXth century using such methods of historical and psychological research as the analysis of research findings, biographical and bibliographical analysis, historical and psychological reconstruction and development of the classification of historical stages. The authors describe the main social conditions for developing research and practical movements: 1) Soviet science policy; 2) public demand for practice-oriented researches in industrial, ideological, social and administrative spheres. For the first time in he academic literature the authors describe the main mechanism of the social determination of the development of research and practical movements of the Soviet psychology, institutionalization. The authors define specific features of the Soviet research policy towards practical psychology, its ambivalent nature and role for de-institutionalization processes (elimination of research centers, specific print media, etc.). The authors also offer their own classification of stages of research and practical movements in the Russian psychology of the first half of the XXth century taking into account the social environment.   
Professional psychology
Smolko S. - Psychological Characteristics of Managers as Factors of Successful Managerial Decisions in the Learning Situation pp. 21-39


Abstract: In this research Smolko examines the features of the manifestation of such psychological characteristics of leaders as the styles of thinking (the questionnaire of S. Epstain), emotional intelligence (questionnaire of D.V. Lyusin), "psychological capital of the individual" (questionnaire of A. Bakker) and confidence in the correctness of decisions in the conditions of explicit and implicit learning in connection with the success of management decisions in the simulated situation of enterprise management. An empirical study was carried out on a sample of heads of structural subdivisions of the holding (N = 331), who passed the course of business education. The obtained data support the assumption that different stages of the learning situation (requiring explicit and / or implicit knowledge) actualize the various psychological characteristics of managers when making decisions. Given the limited time of decision-making, the multivariate methods for achieving success and the absence of available decision algorithms, the significant psychological characteristics for making better managerial decisions are the reliance on rationality and reliance on intuition involved at the same time, predictive ability and optimism. The end-to-end characteristics that determine successful solutions at different stages of the training business game are self-efficacy and vitality, components of emotional intelligence, the level of explicitly mastered knowledge and confidence in the correctness of the choice.
Prokhorova M.V., Larina A.L., Yamusheva N.V. - Holistic Model of Civil Aviation Pilot Competence pp. 40-58


Abstract: The purpose of the research is to develop a holistic competence model for civil aviation pilots. Before carrying out their research the authors have proposed several hyphotheses: civil aviation pilot competences may be classified depending on several grounds and united into the holistic competence model; employees and employers have different perception of what competences are the most important for pilots; and the hierarchical model of civil aviation pilot competences consists of several levels that have a different effect on professional efficiency. Data was collected using the method of document analysis. To process data, the authors have used a whole group of methods such as content analysis, 2х2 cross tables and Pearson nonparametric test χ2 adopted by Yates, cluster analysis (complete link method), and structure analysis. As a result of their research, the authors offer their own holistic competence model for civil aviation pilots. The model includes 16 competences that can be divided into the following groups of qualities: professional (including cognitive qualities such as knowledge of English and aircraft flight skills), functional qualities (organisation of flight operations, flight paperwork management, organisation and control of flight operating safety) and personal qualities (meta-qualities such as discipline, diligence, mobility, aptitude for learning, responsibility, mental health, commitment, ability to cope with stress, sense of purpose and social skills such as team building, leadership, and inerpersonal communication efficiency). Employees and employers have a different perception of what qualities are important. Pilots choose personal competences (diligence and sense of purpose) and knowledge of English as important qualities more frequently than aviation company managers. The authors also offer a four-level hierarchy of competences depending on their importance for employers and pilots. 
Psychopathology of the mundane
Dzhaneryan S.T., Gvozdeva D.I. - Causes of Lower Class Corruption and Personality Traits of Corrupt Officials Based on Opinions of Students with Different Attitudes to Bribery pp. 59-70


Abstract: The article presents the results of the research that was aimed at studying causes of low class corruption and personality traits of bribetakers and bribegivers based on the analysis of the conative component content (causes and personality traits of bribetakers and bribegivers) of certain attitude to bribery demonstrated by young people. One's attitude to bribery is defined as a persistent purpose-and-means attitude when a person perceives bribery as the purpose and means in satisfying one's needs and values. The research was carried out using the following methods: questionnaire survey, content-analysis, tests, and statistical methods of data processing. The authors have analyzed similar attitudes to bribery demonstrated by school, college and university students, in particular, attitude to bribery as an unlawful conduct, business deal, or immoral behavior. According to the results of the research, respondents name various situations as what causes bribe giving, while bribe taking is associated ith particular personality traits of corrupt officials. The authors prove that differentiation between personality traits of bribegivers and bribetakers demonstrated by college and university students is determined by the certain attitude to bribery. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors analyse causes of bribery and personality traits of each participant in a corrupt conduct as demonstrated by young people with different attitudes to bribery as a phenomenon of lowwer class corruption, and differentiate between personality traits of bribegivers and bribetakers as viewed by urban youth. The results of the research can be used in practical lessons aimed at teaching anti-corruption values to students. 
Elfimova M.M. - Developing Voluntary Meaning-Making in a Narrative Training pp. 71-78


Abstract: The subject of the research is the development of the voluntary meaning-making process that is understood as the mastering of a reflective action that is committed by an individual to put in order the objects of the real and ideal worlds. Mastering of a reflective action is the process of learning the action using certain psychological tools. In the course of a psychological training the narrative form of reflection is interiorised. As a result, an individual makes sense of his or her life events. The content of a narrative training is a narrative inquiry as a specific psychotherapeutic technique and means of developing voluntary meaning-making that allows an individual to define and make sense of certain episodes from one's own life, to structure fragmented experience and to take up his or her own attitude to life, thus assuring voluntariness towards their own meanings. To fulfil these tasks, the author has used a set of research methods including general-theoretical (theoretical analysis, comparative analysis, generalization), general-psychological (teaching experiment), and statistical (Mann–Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and interval scale). The research is based on the cultural historical concept that views the process of voluntary meaning-making as a social phenomenon with a mediated structure and voluntary performance. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author views narrative as a psychological tool for constructing the meaning-making aspect of personality. After testing the program of the narrative training in the control group according to certain parameters (biographical reflection, life modus, reflexivity, and general life sense indicator) the researcher has not discovered statistically significant differences while the experimental group indicators have demonstrated statistically significant differences, thus the program of the narrative training aimed at developing voluntary meaning-making proves to be efficient. 
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