Psychologist
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue 02/2022
Contents of Issue 02/2022
Psychology and pedagogics
Nurgaliyeva M., Bulatbayeva A.A., Esenova K.A., Ramazanova S.A. - Features of motivation of educational activity of teenagers pp. 1-7

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2022.2.37623

Abstract: The subject of the study is the motivation of educational activities of teenagers of secondary school. The object of the study is adolescents aged 14-15 years. The authors of this article consider the problem of the success of educational and cognitive activity of senior schoolchildren, due to the low level of educational motivation, studied in the framework of the master's thesis "Formation of the success of educational and cognitive activity of adolescents in the educational environment of the school". This article presents a theoretical overview of the features of the educational motivation of adolescents and the perceived motives of educational activity, as well as their impact on the success of educational and cognitive activity of schoolchildren. The main issues considered in the article are the peculiarities of the expression of certain motives in learning. The main conclusions of this article are presented in the form of research results reflecting the leading conscious motives of educational activity of adolescents in secondary school. The authors consider such criteria of educational motivation as the desire for achievements and knowledge, a positive attitude to learning, preference for a particular subject in the school curriculum, relationships with teachers, the ability to plan and self-regulation, attitude to self-education, the influence of external motives, a sense of duty and responsibility. A special contribution of the authors to the study of the topic is to identify the features of the motivation of educational activities of adolescents in Kazakhstan secondary schools. The novelty of the study is to identify the relationship between educational motivation and the success of educational and cognitive activity of high school students.
Philosophy and psychology
Skleynis V.A. - Archetypal Aspects of a Person's Life Scenario pp. 8-16

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2022.2.37888

Abstract: The subject of this study is the correlation of the type of life scenario of the individual on the one hand and the components of the personality on the other. The aim of the research is to analyze the relationship between archetypal structures of the personality and his/hers life scenario. Considering the life scenario of the person and archetypal structures of his/her personality as components of the outlook, projected at the level of semantics in the form of attitudes to individual objects, situations and time intervals, the author compares the type of life scenario of the person on the one hand and the categorical axes of the archetypal space on the other. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the fact that within the framework of this work, for the first time, the relationship between the types of the life scenario of the individual and the components of his/her archetypal space is empirically investigated. In addition, the novelty of the study lies in the fact that archetypal structures and the life scenario of a personality are considered in the framework of this study from the standpoint of the psychology of subjective semantics and are described as deep semantic structures that manifest themselves at the level of surface structures in the processes of meaning formation. In the course of the study, statistically significant data were obtained, indicating the presence of the conjugacy of the axes of the archetypal space and the type of life scenario of the individual
Question at hand
Rostovtseva M.V., Kovalevich I.A., Yudina Y.G., Bogomaz S.L., Potasheva Y.L., Karaterzi V.A. - Gender Differences in Professional Self-attitude of Passenger Train Stewards pp. 17-25

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2022.2.37908

Abstract: The article is the result of systematic complex work on psychological support of stewards of passenger cars. The author examines one of the factors of the formation and dynamics of the self-attitude of a transport services worker. The study is gender oriented. The purpose of this article is to identify and evaluate the reliability of passenger car stewards. The theoretical basis of the study was the scientific data of research psychologists on the factors of formation and development of professional self-attitude. The subject of this study is gender differences in the professional attitude of passenger cars stewards. The results of the study suggest that there are statistically significant differences in the parameters of internal conflict and self-abasement in the profession of male and female passenger car stewards. The data obtained will be taken into account when developing and improving the system of psychological support for transport service specialists, taking into account gender differences. The revealed gender differences in the professional self-attitude of the passenger cars stewards should be taken into account when building further work on psychological support for this category of specialists, which will contribute to their professional and personal development, increase labor productivity, improve motivation for professional activity.
Person and personality
Shabaeva A.V., Mitina G.V., Shaikhatarova T.V. - Psychological characteristics of single women in early adulthood pp. 26-38

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2022.2.37648

Abstract: The subject of the study was the psychological characteristics of single women with different types of loneliness experiences during early adulthood. The empirical object of the study was a sample of women aged 18 to 44 years in the number of 126 people who were not in a relationship, which were divided into three groups depending on age: 40 people from 18 to 27 years, 66 people from 28 to 36 years and 20 people from 37 to 44 years. Within the framework of the research program, methods were used to diagnose the level and type of loneliness experienced and psychological characteristics. Pearson correlation analysis and the Kraskel-Wallis criterion were used to process the data. The materials and conclusions based on them add to the scientific arsenal of knowledge about the psychological characteristics of single women in early adulthood. The main conclusions of the study include the following provisions: 1. Women in early adulthood have a high level of subjective experience of loneliness; 2. The predominant type of loneliness in women in early adulthood is a dissociated type of loneliness; 3. The study participants fall under the criteria of a self-actualizing personality; 4. There is a relationship between the personal characteristics of single women and the types of loneliness experienced 5. Women in the age group from 37 to 44 years are more emotionally stable, active, serene, calm and see life more holistically.
Psychology and pedagogics
Iakimanskaia I. - Psychological features of self-attitude of teenagers engaged in sports pp. 39-50

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2022.2.37571

Abstract: The article presents views on the concept of self-relation in the theories of domestic and foreign scientists. Having studied the structure of self-attitude, its components from the standpoint of various theoretical approaches, we, within the framework of our research, have defined the attitude to oneself as the most important form of personal relationships, each manifestation of a person as a subject of society is accompanied by the inclusion of his self-attitude. When considering the regularities of the formation of self-attitude in adolescence, we emphasize that it is he who is the sensitive period for the development of self-attitude in the integral structure of personality. The self-attitude of a teenager is constantly changing in the process of living this age period. Its complication, acquisition of greater stability and integration into a single system is natural. We were interested in the specifics of sports activity in the context of the development of self-attitude, the article discusses the features of the development of important personality traits associated with self-esteem and self-acceptance. In the study, we found that the self-attitude of adolescents involved in sports differs from the self-attitude of adolescents not involved in sports. The main differences are related to the higher self-attachment of adolescent athletes and their self-worth in contrast to adolescent non-athletes. Also, teenage athletes have a higher self-esteem of their health, intelligence, ability, peer authority and self-confidence than teenagers who do not play sports. Also, teenagers engaged in sports are characterized by high purposefulness, focus on the life process, the idea of themselves as the master of life and high meaningfulness of life in general. The results obtained during the study confirm the hypothesis that the level of general self-attitude and its individual indicators in adolescents engaged in sports differs from the level of general self-attitude and its individual indicators in adolescents not engaged in sports.
Psychopathology of the mundane
Kazantseva E.V., Makarov A.V., Moskalenko A.E. - Psychoanalytic approach to understanding the nature of addictive behavior pp. 51-65

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2022.2.37703

Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of modern psychoanalytic concepts focused on the description of the mechanisms of formation of addictive behavior. Three main vectors of the development of the ideas of psychoanalysis based on: 1) the theory of object relations; 2) the concept of mentalization and "fragile Ego"; 3) neurophysiological justification of the formation of the nature of emotional models of response to significant situations. A number of studies emphasize the existence of close mutually conditioning links between the neurophysiological and psychological levels of addictive behavior formation. The data obtained in the study of American authors Shevrin and Panksepp are presented, revealing the physiological mechanisms of the theory of attraction developed by Z. Freud.   Special attention is paid to the consideration of psychoanalytic ideas of Z. Freud and J. Lacan in the context of the analysis of dependent behavior. On the basis of the phenomenological approach, an attempt is made to describe the methodological basis of the construct "addiction", based on the concept of "Jouissance" proposed in Lacan's works. The second vector that allows us to sanctify the nature of addictive behavior is the analysis of the nature of the relationship between the Other and one of the variants of the clinical structure of the personality (psychotic, neurotic, pervert). Based on the prepared analysis, the researchers conclude that each clinical personality structure has its own special arsenal of strategies for promoting pleasure and avoiding the act of castration.
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