Psychologist - rubric To understand the human being
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To understand the human being
Kazantseva E.V., Kholina O.A., Moskalenko A.E. - Assessment of Mindfulness Level among the Students Prone to Addictive Behaviour pp. 1-10


Abstract: The article deals with a new cognitive construct of mindfulness, strongly discussed in the foreign scientific area. It describes principal characteristics and spheres, in which the development of the given cognitive phenomenon occurs, for example, in spheres of therapeutic approach, philosophical and pedagogical approach, the approach of personal knowledge and development. Based on foreign and national data, the study emphasizes the impact of mindfulness on significant personality structures, such as reflection, thoughtfulness, and personal life satisfaction. At the empirical stage of the study, it checks university students for the correlation between inclination to addictive behaviour and a high level of mindfulness. The sample encompasses 100 university students including 52 girls and 42 boys with an average age of 20.2. For the examination of the proposed hypothesis, the authors use such methods as The Method of Inclination to 13 types of Addiction by G.V. Lozova and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) by K.W. Brown, R.M Ryan in the adaptation of A.M. Golubev. To verify the data, the authors use methods of mathematical statistics, as well as empirical results obtained in several foreign studies. The authors perform mathematical processing using the SPSS Statistics 6.0 program. In general, the study found that the high level of mindfulness has an inverse correlation with the inclination to addictive behaviour.  
Tikhonova E.A. - Approaches towards studying the concept of coping behavior in Russian and foreign scientific research pp. 1-11


Abstract: The subject of this research is the phenomenon of coping behavior in Russian and foreign scientific research. The object of this research is the approaches towards studying the concept of coping behavior. The goal lies in the attempt to systematize the approaches towards studying the concept of coping behavior in Russian and foreign scientific research. Methodology is based on the scientific-analytical review on the topic of coping behavior in the works of Russian and foreign researchers. The novelty lies in detailed examination such aspect as the approaches towards studying the concept of coping behavior in scientific research. It is underlined that the problem of coping behavior has been studied in foreign psychology since the 1960s; however, in Russian literature it is a fairly new direction. The theoretical framework for foreign research is comprised of the existing representations on the nature of psychological defense mechanisms, cognitive strategies, and stresses. Special attention is given to explanation why some individuals a resilient to stress, while others face difficulties to overcome stressful states. The author’s contribution lies in consideration of foreign experience and representations on the nature of psychological defense mechanisms, cognitive strategies, and stresses. The article analyzes coping behavior using the concepts of psychological defense, personal determinants, problem event, style of coping, pathological processes, and stress factor. The main conclusion is as follows: initially, an individual identifies a problem event as dangerous and unstable; and then, for choosing the way of coping, assesses the impact and characteristics of stress factor, and personal traits.
Savinkov S.N. - Study of the phenomena of “hope” and “hopelessness” in psychology pp. 11-16


Abstract: This article examines the phenomena of “hope” and “hopelessness” as the relevant problems of modern psychology that are an inseparable part of the process of studying the subjective self-esteem of a person. The data presented in the works of leading foreign and national psychologists covering this topic is provided. The study demonstrates the results of survey conducted among teenagers and reflecting the level of hope/hopelessness in this age period. An ambivalent nature of the phenomena of “hope” and “hopelessness” alongside their correlation with emotional states and mental processes is underlined. The author carried out a theoretical analysis of psychological-philosophical literature on the problem of hope and hopelessness of a person. Understanding of essence of the phenomena of “hope” and “hopelessness” presented in the concepts and views of various scholars allow speaking of the methods and tools for regulating emotional, emotional-value, and activity spheres of personality. Both, hope and hopelessness carry not only social, but also individually-inciting character, since they directly relate to self-esteem of e person, emotional regulation of its activity, as well as motivation and needs.
Kapustina V. - Socio-Psychological Determinants of Socialization of Adolescents from One-Parent and Two-Parent Families pp. 16-26


Abstract: The object of the research is socialization as a process. The subject of the research is the determinants of socialization of adolescents from one-parent families and two-parent families. The hypothesis of the research is that there are some differences in the determinants of the socialization between adolescents from one-parent families and two-parent families, in particular, the author supposes that the psychological content of the relations in the group 'teenager - parents' is more versatile and positive in two-parent families wihle personal traits that complicate communicatoin in the group 'teenager - peers' are more frequently demonstrated by teenagers from one-parent families. The research took place in Novosibirsk Region  and covered 3 secondary schools of Novosibirsk and 2 secondary schools of Novosibirsk Region. The research was carried out in 2013-2016. The total number of participants was 185 aged 13-16 y.o. (93 boys and 92 girls). There were 113 teenagers from two-parent families and 72 teenagers from one-parent families. The sample has been divided into 3 groups according to the used set of diagnostic tools. The data of this research confirms the author's hypothesis that there are differences in the process of the socialization of adolescents from different family types. The described results proves the influence of external determinants (interpersonal relationships in a social system “teenager-parents”) on a socialization of teenagers from one-parent and two-parent families. Besides the differences in external determinants, there were found some internal determinants (individual traits: interpersonal anxiety, verbal hostility, negativism, extraversion, rigidity, sensitivity, aggression and emotiveness) which are differerent according to family structure. The author has an opinion that all negative effects of the incomplete structure of family can be compensated by developing necessary skills (for example, communicative and organizational skills).
Komissarova O.A. - Interpersonal Relationships Diagnosis as a Method of Determining the 'I am' Image of Students-Managers pp. 16-24


Abstract: The study aims to conduct a comparative analysis of images 'I am real', 'I am perfect', 'successful manager' in the perception of students-managers based on the styles of interpersonal relationship chosen by them. The subject of the study is the styles of interpersonal relationships manifested among students-managers in the chosen by them images 'I am real', 'I am perfect', 'successful manager'. The object of the study is students of management faculty. The study obtained significant differences in the styles of interpersonal response reflected in the 'I am real', 'I am perfect', 'successful manager' profiles in the group of first-year students-managers. In the study were used such methods as a psychodiagnostic method with the use of the methodology of interpersonal relationship determining by L.N. Sobchik; method of statistical analysis: non-parametric Mann–Whitney U-test. The novelty of the conducted research is due to the analysis of 'I am real', 'I am perfect', 'successful manager' profiles obtained as a result of psychodiagnostics of first-year students-managers, and also due to identifying the significant differences in students' preferences of certain interpersonal relationships styles in the course of comparative analysis. It is concluded that interpersonal relationships styles based on a strong type of response are the most significant for students and most selected for the top positions. In students' profiles 'I am real' and 'I am perfect' the opposite tendencies in interpersonal response leading to internal tension and internal conflicts were determined.  
Kapustina T.V., Kadyrov R.V., Lyukshina D.S. - Coping Behavior Strategies and Psychological Defence Mechanisms of Young Women with Particular Early Maladaptive Schemas pp. 25-33


Abstract: The object of the research is the Early Maladaptive Schemas. The subject of the research is the coping behavior strategies and psychological defence mechanisms used by young women with different Early Maladaptive Schemas. The authors of the article analyze Early Maladaptive Schemas as particular behavioral stereotypes that have a negative influence on life activity. The authors underline the importance of the research results for psychological counselling regarding difficult life situations caused by Early Maladaptive Schemas. In the course of their research the authors have used empirical research methods and data processing methods. In particular, they use such tests as the Young Schema Questionnaire YSQ-S3R, Coping Strategy Inventory and Life-Style Index. For statisticall processing of data the authors use Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient. The results of the empirical research of young women aged from 21 to 30 years with Early Maladaptive Schemas demonstrate that the coping strategies they mostly use are distancing and repression as an ego defence mechanism. The research results can be used for psychological counselling of clients and patients with Early Maladaptive Schemas and increasing efficiency of psychological assistance by transforming or changing habitual inefficient behavioral schemes. The novelty of the research and the authors' contribution are caused by the fact that they extend the empirical basis of Early Maladaptive Schemas and give the results that can be u sed in psychotherapy and psychological counselling. 
Iakimanskaia I. - The peculiarities of marriage leadership and psychological climate in a family pp. 32-44


Abstract: Psychological microclimate of a family is an important factor determining health, social and work activity of family members and society overall. The following traits are characteristic for a favorable psychological climate – team spirit, opportunity for personal growth for each spouse, kindness to each other, feeling of security and emotional satisfaction, pride for being a part of their family, responsibility. The basis for favorable climate of a family is marital relations, namely such manifestations as leadership and domination. In accordance with this, the research divided the families into three groups: with traditional leadership (patriarchy), nontraditional leadership (matriarchy), and egalitarian leadership (equal partnership); and then compared the psychological climate and wellbeing of family members. Based on the acquired results, the article states that in family relations women demonstrate higher level of frustration than men do. Women desire emotional closeness, aspire to achieve understanding, experiencing anxiety, tension and guilt. The highest level of anxiety and tension is noticed in couples with patriarchy. The article suggests that subordination leads to decrease of self-confidence of women, fear to end up alone and lose support of their husbands. Inclination to the feeling of guilt manifests among women who demonstrate leadership in family relations, as well as among those who desire to avoid it.
Osin R.V., Baranov A.A. - Specificity of the virtual and real image of communication partner pp. 40-51


Abstract: This article examines the peculiarities of social perception of a person in the Internet discourse. The relevance of the topic is dictated by the rapid development of the Internet and cyberspace, which leads to the trend that the new information space of virtual reality is considered the new reality. Various types of social communication, including empathy, compassion, manifestation and perception of emotions are shifting to the online sphere. The authors assume that the respondents have clearer perception of socio-psychological peculiarities of personality of the partner in direct communication, rather than in the context of Internet discourse. For proving this hypothesis, the survey was conducted among 80 young people aged 18 to 27, using the following methods:: the value questionnaire of S. Schwartz; orientation of the personality by Bass, Smekal, and Kuchera; Gaol-Means-Result questionnaire by A. A. Karmanov; and Rotter's Locus of Control Scale. A decision was made to balance the attraction factor, i.e. communication was carried out in the messengers Telegram and WhatsApp. The acquired data indicate that the participants of the group of direct communication are characterized with the primary values of power, and satisfaction with personal career success; they try to avoid in-depth emotions. The results quantitative analysis of Internet discourse group indicate that the respondents are characterizes with the primary values of power. It is established that the representatives of the group of direct communication have better perception of the socio-psychological peculiarities of personality of the partner than the respondents of the Internet discourse group; the ability to perceive the motives and values of the communication partner is statistically important.
Sennitskaya E.V. - What is Attention? pp. 41-53


Abstract: The subject of the study is attention, the main task is to explain the fact established as a result of observations of the course of school and university teachers, as well as as a result of a natural experiment conducted by the author. The article discusses the reasons why is the maximum attention with minimal willed effort achieved in case when each object that needs to be opened is explained with the help of 3-5 objects known to the reader or listener which are on the same level in the hierarchical system of the information presented. In other words, in this paper we propose an explanation of why 3-5 interrelated objects, facts or examples, illustrating a certain concept or rule, reliably attract the attention of the reader or listener, while a smaller or larger number is perceived as insufficient or excessive, respectively. This paper is a theoretical study based on the methodological principle of the unity of consciousness and activity. It analyzes the existing definitions of attention and compares them with the above results, obtained experimentally. The novelty of the study is to develop the definition of attention as a concept related to the quantity and hierarchical structure of perceived information. A hypothesis was also put forward that the connection of the object with 3-5 others is perceived as important, attracting attention, because attention sets are conditioned by the structure of the human body and its activity in the process of filo- and ontogenesis.
Iakimanskaia I. - Social representations of infidelity among married and unmarried men and women pp. 47-59


Abstract: The goal of this research is to examine the specificity of social representations of infidelity among married and unmarried men and women. The hypothesis was advanced that married and unmarried men and women differ in their perception of infidelity. The differences depend on the gender and marital status, and pertain to definition of this concept and the underlying causes. The article employs the methods of questionnaire, content analysis, and the developed by the authors projective technique “draw infidelity”. It was established that the respondents view infidelity from two perspectives: those who commit adultery (more typical to men), and those against whom adultery was committed (more typical to women). Married individuals more often describe their own infidelity, while unmarried persons describe the infidelity of another partner. The main cause infidelity for men are new sensations (new sexual experience, etc.), while women it is love for another person (strong emotional experiences). Married respondents describe infidelity as a rare, tough, and long-term phenomenon. Unmarried respondents consider infidelity a rather frequent phenomenon that gives new experience in relationships. Women view infidelity as an emotional, passionate, and unique phenomenon. Men tend to assess infidelity as an indifferent, typical, and rational event. The acquired data can be used in family counseling on the problems of infidelity, as well as in psychological counseling overall. The results can also be used in psychoprophylactic work with youth on the question of family and marriage.
Suleymanova S.S., . - Psychological Problems of Modern Families pp. 60-127


Abstract: The article is devoted to the conflicts and problem zones of a modern family. Marriage and a family are considered in the context of modern (public-historical and economic) society living conditions. The special attention is paid to specifics of relationship in a modern family on which gender factors and systems of role installations have impact. As major problems of a modern family and the marriage relations are allocated and described: trouble of families, inequality of marital status of spouses; woman's overload; disharmony of the sexual relations; inadequacy in perception and manifestations of prestigiousness of spouses, intra family violence, motives of the birth of children, an androgenization of family members. The main method of research in this work is the analysis of scientific literature, and also the statistical data which are in open access. Scientific novelty of this work is made by the fact of that very small number of researchers notes an androginization of family members and a malodetnost as problems of psychological character. As a conclusion it is possible to note that the families which avoided all companion problems of marriage practically don't exist, but each family possesses a certain resilience to marriage problems as circumstances often differ and can vary. From this it is possible to conclude that each family is individual and is subject to studying from various sciences, relevance and a rich scope for researches of a subject of a family follows from here.
Pogontseva D.V. - Concepts of the Physical Beauty in Modern Culture pp. 71-79


Abstract: Modern idea of beauty enough not steadily also is under continuous change therefore an object of research is the analysis of representations of women about a beautiful body of the woman. Female selection is caused by an orientation of the modern industry of beauty on female audience, and object of an assessment is the woman, since modern social psychology, being engaged in studying of social ideas of women (policy, the businessman, the teacher, the doctor), analyzing social ideas of mission of women and men in society more pays attention to object of representations – the woman and, to a lesser extent, focuses attention on research of women as subjects of ideas of the woman. This foreshortening of studying of "a female view" of the woman is of particular importance in connection with research of ideas of female beauty or the beautiful woman. In work the first part to the author's questionnaire "An assessment of compliance of physical parameters of appearance, personal features and characteristics of the social and psychological status to idea of the beautiful woman" which is directed on studying "estimates of compliance of physical parameters of appearance to idea of the beautiful woman" was used. During the analysis of the received results, by us it was revealed that the beautiful woman is described as the woman of average height from 158 to 175 centimeters, weighing from 48 to 64 kilograms. In article conclusions that in ideas of the beautiful woman, from the point of view of her growth weight, most often there are above listed characteristics (average height, "not the thin - not full", a proportional figure, harmonous) also are drawn. It is possible to assume also that participants of research relied on own idea of a figure that could have impact on formation of representations that there is "a thin body" and that there is "a full body", also it can be caused by that estimating both growth and weight of the woman slightly increased range completely, meaning that "the beautiful woman can be different". 
Goncharuk E.A. - Erich Fromm and Jean-Paul Sartre about Masochism: Comparative Analysis pp. 74-95


Abstract: In article the comparative analysis of a phenomenon of masochism at the neofreudian E. Fromm and the existentialist J.-P. Sartre is undertaken. It is shown that Freud saw masochism roots in secrets of children's psychosexual development. Fromm as the representative of a neofreydizm made an attempt considerably to change this diagnosis. He came to the conclusion that a phenomenon of a sadism and masochism not so much psychoanalytic, how many a social phenomenon. People become hostages of this neurotic state as a result of education, socialization and realization of the interpersonal relations. The power corrupts people. She forces many to seek for love of power, and others dooms to humiliation and subordination. Essentially other look is developed by Sartre. He believes that masochism not so much social, how many an anthropological phenomenon. The power can't force the personality to cruelty or submission if it doesn't coincide with its existential choice. Sartre creates the concept of masochism in polemic with Simona Beauvoir with whom it was connected by the love relations. The author uses methods of historical reconstruction of a problem. It allows to show that masochism has historical aspects. At different stages there were different versions of sources of masochism. In article also methods of philosophical comprehension of the person are applied. Thus, the phenomenology of a sociality is replaced in article with existential thinking. Novelty of article that the problem of masochism isn't reduced only to psychological aspect. For the first time in domestic literature in historical aspect views Freud, Fromm and Sartre are compared. It is as a result shown that from a stage to a stage the judgment of this phenomenon becomes more and more developed, clear and theoretically productive. Existential examination is characterized as the most well-founded.
Rozin V.M. - The Problem of Using Scientific Concepts in Humanitarian Approach to Psychotherapy pp. 214-248


Abstract: The author of the article discusses the two points of view on using scientific theoretical concepts in humanitarian approach to psychotherapy. While some researchers say that a psychotherapist would not do without theoretical concepts, others do not agree with that. The latter is well demonstrated by A. Puzyrey's phenomenological approach. The author of the present article supports the first point of view and therefore he analyzes Pavel Volkov's experience who uses theoretical concepts (both psychological and philosophical) in his psychotherapy. It is shown that theoretical concepts set a conceptual framework of 'healing constructs'. Such constructs are not fully based on these theoretical concepts  but must comply with them. Volkov's work is compared to a famous publication by John Nardone. These two works have very similar methodological grounds. The final part of the present article presents the main provisions of the author's teaching about psychic realities. Rozin believes that this teaching can help humanitarian psychotherapists to expand the scope of their scientific concepts. 
Berezina T.N. - The reserve abilities on the tree of human evolution pp. 229-257


Abstract: This article deals with the position of psychic abilities on the evolutionary tree of humans. It analyzes publications about psychic phenomena over the last two centuries as well as the writing of A.G. Li, R. Dzhan and others. The analysis shows a complete lack of progress: researchers have conducted the same experiments in order to explain the same ideas again and again. The article takes note of the paradox of psychic phenomena: no one can prove or deny their existence. It provides examples of phenomena in the same order as other living species: simple organisms, worms, cephalopods, birds and monkeys. It is assumed that any new ability appears in the evolutionary sequence twice: first as unstable accident and, at a later stage, as a stable ability. Perhaps this is true of psychic abilities also. The article proposes directions for future research in order to study the nature of psychic abilities. It argues that the issue of reserve abilities can be clarified only after we understand the mechanisms of the functioning of psychic abilities.
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