Psychologist - rubric Psychopathology of the mundane
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Rubric "Psychopathology of the mundane"
Psychopathology of the mundane
Ovrutskiy A.V. - Psychology of Consumer Addiction pp. 31-38


Abstract: The article is devoted to the psychological aspects of consumer addiction. The author outlines psychoanalytical, behavioral and cognitive approaches to analyzing consumer behavior. According to the author, the general feature of the psychological approach to consumption is the analysis of consumer process as being predetermined by personal and socio-psychological phenomena. The importance of the topic is conditioned by the growing number of so-called consumer neuroses as a result of the development of the new consumder society and transformations of modern personality. In particular, the latter includes the systemic fragmentation of consciousness, new 'mosaic' and clip-like perception and worldview and multiple personality disorder (MPD) as a new nosological entity. The researcher analyzes a psychological-evolutionary classification of consumption types including introjection, assimilation and projection. Ovrutsky considers the following to be consumer additictions: oniomania, 'collectors' fanaticism', drug abuse, alcohol abuse, tobacco addiction, Internet addiction, gambling, cleptomania, and pathological collecting. In his research Ovrutsky provides a general description of the consumer society and modern consumer. The researcher has used psychological methods to analyze consumer addictions. The results of the research demonstate that effective application of psychological methods to the analysis and treatment of consumer neuroses implies consideration of a wider socio-economic environment of personality disorders. Meanwhile, descriptive and explanatory schemes used in psychology give us a hope that they can be successfully applied to the process of humanization of personality and society in general. The main conclusions are the following. 1. Psychological studies of consumer addictions go beyound methodological borders of behaviorism and today's 'psychology of consumption' exists within the frameworks of neopsychoanalysis and cognitivism. 2. The psychological-evolutionary classification of consumption types based on the neocognitivist model has a high level of heuristicity and can be applied to diagnostics and treatment. 3. The general vector of the ontogenetic development of consumption goes from the introjective type of consumption to assimilative and projective types of consumption, thus following the general pattern of the development of consumption in phylogenesis. 
Pazukhina S.V., Bobrovnikova N.S. - Social and Personal Resources of Educational Actors as the Basis for Bullying Prevention pp. 49-56


Abstract: The article presents a review of scientific psychological and pedagogical literature on the problem of social and personal resources of education actors as the basis for bullying prevention. The authors examine the influence of parent moral education and teacher attitudes on developing of teenagers' attitude to the situation of bullying. A brief analysis of the concept of bullying is given. The authors also emphasize the need to prevent this phenomenon at educational institutions and present a model of a diagnostic program consisting of diagnostic techniques that allow to comprehensively study the social and personal resources. The authors have also made a brief analysis of the diagnostic results obtained in the course of testing this program. In the course of their study the authors have used theoretical research methods (abstraction, deduction, induction) and experimental methods (testing, observation, experiment). The main conclusion of the research is the conclusion about the insufficient level of development of social and personal resources of educational process actors as evidenced by the high percentage of teenagers who have difficulty communicating and sufficiently large number of actors with low learning ability. Many respondents have low self esteem and high levels of aggressiveness and anxiety. The authors have also discovered that today teachers are not an authority for modern teenagers, and parents in some cases experience negative feelings towards their teenage children.
Kazantseva E.V., Makarov A.V., Moskalenko A.E. - Psychoanalytic approach to understanding the nature of addictive behavior pp. 51-65


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of modern psychoanalytic concepts focused on the description of the mechanisms of formation of addictive behavior. Three main vectors of the development of the ideas of psychoanalysis based on: 1) the theory of object relations; 2) the concept of mentalization and "fragile Ego"; 3) neurophysiological justification of the formation of the nature of emotional models of response to significant situations. A number of studies emphasize the existence of close mutually conditioning links between the neurophysiological and psychological levels of addictive behavior formation. The data obtained in the study of American authors Shevrin and Panksepp are presented, revealing the physiological mechanisms of the theory of attraction developed by Z. Freud.   Special attention is paid to the consideration of psychoanalytic ideas of Z. Freud and J. Lacan in the context of the analysis of dependent behavior. On the basis of the phenomenological approach, an attempt is made to describe the methodological basis of the construct "addiction", based on the concept of "Jouissance" proposed in Lacan's works. The second vector that allows us to sanctify the nature of addictive behavior is the analysis of the nature of the relationship between the Other and one of the variants of the clinical structure of the personality (psychotic, neurotic, pervert). Based on the prepared analysis, the researchers conclude that each clinical personality structure has its own special arsenal of strategies for promoting pleasure and avoiding the act of castration.
Dzhaneryan S.T., Gvozdeva D.I. - Causes of Lower Class Corruption and Personality Traits of Corrupt Officials Based on Opinions of Students with Different Attitudes to Bribery pp. 59-70


Abstract: The article presents the results of the research that was aimed at studying causes of low class corruption and personality traits of bribetakers and bribegivers based on the analysis of the conative component content (causes and personality traits of bribetakers and bribegivers) of certain attitude to bribery demonstrated by young people. One's attitude to bribery is defined as a persistent purpose-and-means attitude when a person perceives bribery as the purpose and means in satisfying one's needs and values. The research was carried out using the following methods: questionnaire survey, content-analysis, tests, and statistical methods of data processing. The authors have analyzed similar attitudes to bribery demonstrated by school, college and university students, in particular, attitude to bribery as an unlawful conduct, business deal, or immoral behavior. According to the results of the research, respondents name various situations as what causes bribe giving, while bribe taking is associated ith particular personality traits of corrupt officials. The authors prove that differentiation between personality traits of bribegivers and bribetakers demonstrated by college and university students is determined by the certain attitude to bribery. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors analyse causes of bribery and personality traits of each participant in a corrupt conduct as demonstrated by young people with different attitudes to bribery as a phenomenon of lowwer class corruption, and differentiate between personality traits of bribegivers and bribetakers as viewed by urban youth. The results of the research can be used in practical lessons aimed at teaching anti-corruption values to students. 
Dzhaneryan S.T., Gvozdeva D.I., Panina E.A. - Attitudes to Bribery Demonstrated by School and College Students pp. 65-81


Abstract: The article presents the results of the research devoted to attitudes to bribery (or bribe) demonstrated by school and college students. One's attitude to bribery (bribe) is defined by the authors as a sustainable purpose-means psychological attitude of an individual who perceives a bribe as a means (or purpose) of achieving his or her needs and values. The authors offer their classification of attitudes to bribery depending on the definition of bribery: illegal activity, commercial deal, or unmoral behavior. The authors analyze contents of each attitude component of school and college students and offer such empiric criteria as the level of awareness, structuredness and maturity of one's attitude to bribery. The authors demonstrate that each attitude to bribery of college students is more structured and mature compared to school students. Taking into account the level of awareness and structurednes of established attitudes, the authors show their differentiation depending on their maturity in groups of school and college students. The research methods include survey (questionnaire offered by the authors), content analysis of answers to free-answer questions in the questionnaire, tests, and statistical data processing methods. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors analyse and define different attitudes to bribery demonstrated by school and college students and view the maturity of attitude to bribery demonstrated by school and college students based on the attitude concept offered by V. Myasischev. The authors also offer empirical criteria to analyze the maturity of one's attitude. The results of the research can be used in practical anticorruption prevention and moral education of pre-University students. 
Murashchenkova N., Gritsenko V., Brazhnik I. - Psychological Analysis of Expectations of Russians to Russia from the Ukraine and Other Countries pp. 77-91


Abstract: The article presents part of the results of a complex empirical research of socio-psychological adaptation of Russians migrating to Russia from other countries. The research involved 228 people (107 men and 121 women aged 17 - 63 years old, M=29.59, SD=9.54). Respondents from the Ukraine (Donetsk and Lugansk Regions) were 112 people (51 men and 61 women) and respondents from other countries (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldavia, Tadjikistan, Turkeminstan, and Uzbekistan) were 116 people (56 men and 60 women). The purpose of the research was to analyze their expectations under the conditions of their socio-psychological adaptation to living in Russia. The authors make an assumption that those who come from the Ukraine and other countries have different expectations as a result of the former's forced and fast migration caused by the military conflict in the Ukraine. Empirical data was collected using the opinion poll. In particular, the authors have analyzed data obtained using free-answer and yes-no questions that respondents answered as part of the questionnaire prepared by the authors. Data were processed using the methods of descriptive statistics, frequency and content analysis, and Fisher angular transformation (φ* criteria). As a result of this empirical research, the authors have discovered differences in migrants' expectations of those who came from the Ukraine and those who came from other countries. Migrants from the Ukraine more frequently tended to expect help and support from others than from themselves and were in a greater need of information, help with employment and accomodation. They also believed they needed compensations from the government of the country they had left and had a better idea of what help and support they could use from the receiving country to adapt to life in Russia. On the whole, expectations of the majority of those who came from the Ukraine and other countries have been satisfied. Many of them had realistic expectations and the right idea of conditions, advantages and challenges they would have in Russia which was most likely to be one of the factors of their successful adaptation (based on self-reports of respondents). However, the results have also demonstrated that respondents felt their adaptation was incomplete or were too focused on challenges and negative emotions experienced in the process of their adaptation which could cause additional emotional tension and make them seek for social and psychological assistance. Another traumatic and destructive feeling that could hinder their successful socio-psychological adaptation was their expectations of conflicts from the local population. The results of the research can be used as guidelines to improve socio-psychological adaptation of migrants as well as to create a program of psychological assistance of migrants from the former Soviet republics.
Voroncova J., Ermolaev V. . - Generation Z' Gender-Based Representations of Family: Cross-Cultural Analysis pp. 79-95


Abstract: Object of research is gender ideas of the future family at the Russian and Lithuanian seniors as representatives of generation of Z. Authors in detail consider such aspects of a subject as polorolevy aspect of family life, continuously growing tendency to increase in number of incomplete families, as a result of numerous rastorzheniye of marriages, proving by that relevance of studying of a problem of transformation of institute of a family. The special attention is paid by authors to representations of the Russian and Lithuanian seniors as representatives of digital generation about the future family, to ethical standards and the level of subjective control, their balance in system of social representations.And the level of subjective control at digital generation were applied to research of content of ideas of future family and expressiveness of ethical standards: technique of stereometric testing (Garber E. I., V. V. Kozacha); express technique of an assessment of the relation to observance of ethical standards (Kupreychenko A. B.); test questionnaire level of subjective control (E. F. Bazhin, E. A. Golykina, A. M. Etkind). It is carried out cross-country - cultural research of ideas of the future family of the Russian and Lithuanian seniors as representatives of generation of Z. The following conclusions have been formulated: distinctions are found in representatives of generation of Z between ideas of future family, ethical standards and level of subjective control of the Russian and Lithuanian school students.
Kireeva O.V., Diomin A.N. - Cognitive and emotional components of attitude of man toward credits pp. 126-139


Abstract: The article discusses the cognitive and emotional components of the attitude toward credits. The cognitive component of the attitude toward credits is considered as a representation of the risks and resources that a person expects from crediting, and the emotional component is analyzed through the basic emotions experienced by a person at different stages of credits. Crediting considered as a sequence of the following borrowers: the decision to take a bank credit, the bank selection and credit conditions, obtaining approval for crediting, debt and interest payments on a credit agreement. Particular importance is attached to the study cases of non-repayment of debt and interest on the credit, that is, stage of personal default. Research presentation of crediting and the range of experiences of potential and actual borrowers was carried out using qualitative and quantitative techniques. As part of the study of the cognitive component of attitude toward credits on the content of personal meanings identified: the normative borrowers, who are forced to borrowers, borrowers-hedonists, borrowers perceive credits as the risks and threats, borrowers with an ambivalent attitude toward credits. As part of the study of the emotional component it is established that the four stages of the credit behavior is dominated by the emotion of interest, and at the stage of personal default added grief, guilt, fear. Consequently, the behavior of the credit includes the risk of psychological crisis.
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