Psychologist - rubric Question at hand
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Question at hand
Elzesser A.S., Kapustina T.V. - Diagnostic Capabilities of Psychological Tests: State-of-the-Art pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2019.3.30013

Abstract: The matter under research is diagnostic capabilities of psychological tests. Despite frequent use, this term does not have a clear definition and can be interpreted in a different way in researches. The authors of the article examine such aspects of the topic as the use of the term 'diagnostic capabilities' in Russian empirical reserach, the structure of the term 'diagnostic capabilities' of psychologists tests, problems caused by the use of unreliable tests in psychological practice, reasons and solutions. The researchers have also carried out a practical analysis of the term 'diagnostic capabilities' as it has been used in recent empirical researches and have analyzed objective reasons of why unreliable psychological tests are commonly used. The main conclusions of the research are the following: 1. there is the 'theory-and-practice' dialectics in academic psychology: borders of 'diagnostic capabilities' are defined by the theoretical model of psychic phenomenon which, in its turn, is based on actual empirical data. 2. The definition of 'diagnostic capabilities' should include measurable effects and diagnostic attributes; applicability for particular research objectives and groups of respondents, standard samples or reference patterns that can be used in the process of interpretation, reliability, reasonability and validity. The term 'diagnostic capabilities' is identical to the term 'psychometric properties'. 3. Objective reasons for such common use of unreliable psychologists tests include: the use of out-of-date tests; availability of such tests; the fact that tests are used by other specialists but not psychologists; and use of computer interpretation of tests. 4. The authors describe ways to overcome this problem, i.e. to involve students in psychologists researches carried out by university departments; to develop the mechanism of distribution of psychologists tests; awareness of harmful effect of online diagnostics; increasing availability of online counselling; and encouraging better understanding of methodological bases of particular tests. 
Plavinskaya J.B. - The forgotten names in legal psychology: Erich Wulffen (1862-1936) pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2020.1.31873

Abstract: The subject of this research is the life path and scientific legacy of Erich Wulffen (1862-1936) – a prominent representative of the German legal psychology of the late XIX – early XX century. Unfortunately, his works are insufficiently studied in Russia. Therefore, the goal of this study consists in filling the information gaps on the evolution of legal psychology in Germany; analysis of the history of this field of scientific knowledge through the prism of personal biography and scientific contribution of the outstanding German scholar, whose works had a significant impact upon the development of Western European legal psychology. The following methods were applied: historical-functional, comparative-historical, systematization of psychological ideas of E. Wulffen, retrospective reconstruction of the evolution of his scientific ideas, and biographical that allowed determining his contribution to the formation of legal psychology as science. The author comprehensively examines the scientific legacy of Erich Wulffen – a scholar who made a significant contribution to the establishment and development of legal psychology in Germany. The new data is introduced into the scientific discourse allowing to analyze the logics and dynamics of evolution of psychological views, as well as determine the most important ideas of E. Wulffen that retain their relevance at present.
Kubyshkina M.L., Kazakova E.V., Gasheva A.A. - Agentic position with regards to health among middle-aged men and women pp. 1-14

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2020.2.32546

Abstract: The subject of this research is the agentic position with regards to health among middle-aged men and women. The author determined the structure of such position, described its common features (behavioral activity, aimed at health support understanding of need for a healthy lifestyle), features specific to men (attitude to health as a value), and features specific to women (health awareness). The goal of the article consists in examination of correlation between the agentic qualities of middle-aged men and women, determination of gender specificity of agency in the area of health. Research was conducted on 164 persons, aged 22-58 (80 men and 84 women), sampling aligned by gender, age and educational background. The method of correlation analysis allowed revealing the agentic personality traits that support active stand on health: common for men and women, such as autonomy, self-worth, creativity, assertiveness, content with life, overall internality and internality in achievements); as well as gender-specific. Women also feature internality in professional and family spheres; while men feature activity, mediacy, and internality in health sphere. Considering that the problem of human as an agent of health is at the initial stage of development, the acquired data would be useful for more profound understanding of the topic, as well as formulation of objectives for furher fundamental and applied studies.  
Kubyshkina M.L., Kazakova E.V., Prokhorova I.F. - Childhood emotional experience as a prerequisite for optimism and social activeness in senior age pp. 1-21

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2020.3.32722

Abstract: The subject of this research is the childhood emotional experience of the people of senior age, i.e. the “children of war” generation. The author pursues the goal to study their emotional experiences associated with childhood that fell on the war period as the prerequisite for their life optimism and social activeness in the senior age. The analysis is bases on the materials of biographical narratives collected over the period from 2012 to 2019. The sampling included 34 men aged 75-85, and 57 women aged 75-90. The method of non-standardized biographical interviews became the means for collecting data. The acquired narratives were processed through the method of content analysis (for formalization of the variables “optimism”, “pessimism” and “social activity”), and comprising structured descriptions of emotional experience of the wartime childhood, summarizes in the basis of two highlighted nominations – socially active optimists and pessimists with low social activeness. It was determined that the positive emotional experience of the children of war contributed to formation of their optimistic perception of the world and subjective position on life, which remained until senior age and manifest in their social activeness and interaction with the surrounding world, while the negative emotional experience created the foundation for pessimistic worldview and contributed to formation of infantile position on life, which in senior age manifest in low social activeness, helplessness and complaints to the world. The author indicates seven characteristic of the positive and six characteristics of the negative childhood emotional experience, which can be viewed as the prerequisites for optimism/pessimism and social activeness/passiveness in the senior age.  
Kulikov L.V., Potapova Y.V., Malenova A Yu A.Y., Blekanov I.S., Razumilov E.S. - The peculiarities of using emoji pictograms in online communities with different frequency of use of obscene lexicon pp. 1-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2022.1.37235

Abstract: The subject of this research is the use of pictograms for expressing emotions and feelings in network communication. The object is the comments in several communities in the popular among youth social network VKontakte. The goal of this article lies in the comparison of preferred emoji used by the users to express their emotions and feelings, who are part of the communities with different frequency of use of obscene lexicon. The hypothesis is advanced that the groups with different frequency of use of obscene lexicon differ in their emotional tonality and the emoji pictograms used for expressing emotions and feelings. The research is based on the method of survey in form of the questionnaire about the peculiarities of Internet preferences and most attractive communities in social network for the respondents; as well as the method of content analysis. The questionnaire survey involved 854 persons; the data on the frequency of use of emoji was collected on the example of 14 communities in VKontakte social network. It is determined that in communities with lesser use of obscene lexicon, the rating of emoji denoting positive (hedonic and affinity) emotions is higher. In communities with more obscene lexicon, the users equally use pictograms that express negative and positive emotion; most frequent negative emotions such denote anger and frustration, or melancholy, sadness. The acquired results can be applied in development of the methods for monitoring the moods of the users of network communication.
Rostovtseva M.V., Kovalevich I.A., Yudina Y.G., Bogomaz S.L., Potasheva Y.L., Karaterzi V.A. - Gender Differences in Professional Self-attitude of Passenger Train Stewards pp. 17-25

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2022.2.37908

Abstract: The article is the result of systematic complex work on psychological support of stewards of passenger cars. The author examines one of the factors of the formation and dynamics of the self-attitude of a transport services worker. The study is gender oriented. The purpose of this article is to identify and evaluate the reliability of passenger car stewards. The theoretical basis of the study was the scientific data of research psychologists on the factors of formation and development of professional self-attitude. The subject of this study is gender differences in the professional attitude of passenger cars stewards. The results of the study suggest that there are statistically significant differences in the parameters of internal conflict and self-abasement in the profession of male and female passenger car stewards. The data obtained will be taken into account when developing and improving the system of psychological support for transport service specialists, taking into account gender differences. The revealed gender differences in the professional self-attitude of the passenger cars stewards should be taken into account when building further work on psychological support for this category of specialists, which will contribute to their professional and personal development, increase labor productivity, improve motivation for professional activity.
Gorchakova O.Y., Larionova A.V., Obukhovskaya V.B., Kozlova N.V. - Study of the economic behavior of an individual: correlation between psychological characteristics and monetary attitudes pp. 18-35

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2021.5.36807

Abstract: The subject of this research is the monetary attitudes (financial prudence, money worship, money as socioeconomic status, money anxiety) and monetary relations (attitude to money, representations of monetary behavior). The goal of this article is to examine the specificity of monetary attitudes of an individual, and trace their correlation with psychological characteristics of an individual (risk tolerance and resilience). The research involves 371 respondents, median age of 34.5 years. Research methodology is based on the following instruments: “Scale of Monetary Attitudes” adapted by D. A. Bayazitova and T. A. Lapshova; “Reselience Test  adapted by E. N. Osin and E. I. Rasskazova; “Diagnostics of the Level of Individual Readiness for Risk” adapted by E. P. Ilyin; Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale; essay “My Monetary Behavior”. As a result of the conducted research, description is given to the concept of “monetary behavior”, characteristics of value-semantic attitude towards money of the respondents, and the level of risk behavior in monetary terms. It is established that risky consumer behavior of a person implies the tendency to making “uncontrolled” purchases in the context of systematic money scarcity and pattern of debt (credit) behavior. The author determines that high value of monetary resource is negatively interrelated with the resilience indicators. It is demonstrated that such monetary attitudes as “excessive prudence”, “money worship”, “money anxiety”, “strive for higher socioeconomic status " are accompanied by self-doubt and disbelief in oneself in the situations of risk and uncertainty.
Kekteeva Y.I., Gardanova Z.R., Chistiakova N.V. - Individual psychological predictors of occupational stress of the surgeons on the example of orthopedic surgeons pp. 19-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2022.1.37132

Abstract: The practical activity of surgeons is an essential part of providing in-patient and out-patient medical aid in the Russian Federation. The orthopedic surgeons are at high risk of maladjustment due to the negative impact of job-related stress factors., and thus are more sensitive to psychoemotional strains in comparison with other professional groups. The effectiveness of the corrective effect of surgical treatment is closely associated with the risk of medical malpractice. Comprehensive assessment of psychoemotional state of the orthopedic surgeons reveals the subjective level of stress resistance as a health-saving factor in the context of rendering medical aid in the in-patient facilities. The goal of this research lies in determination of predictors of emotional exhaustion among the orthopedic surgeons due to their professional activity. The sampling involved 75 male staff members of the department of Traumatology and Orthopedics at the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences and National Pirogov Medical Surgical Center. Assessment is conducted on the functional state, anxiety level, and peculiarities of coping behavior of the respondents, using a tested psychodiagnostic toolset and SPPS Statistics 28.0.1.0. As a result, it is revealed that psychoemotional well-being of orthopedic surgeons affects their overall behavior and the effectiveness of professional activity. Description is given to predictors of the symptoms of personality neuroticism caused by emotional exhaustion related to neuropsychiatric loads and risk of development of the chronic fatigue syndrome. The author establishes a proclivity for asthenia, emotional distress, rigidity, low activity level, and impaired mood among the orthopedic surgeons working in the in-patient care facilities.
Serikov G.V. - Attractive Appearance as an Instrumental Value and its Importance Among Young People pp. 21-31

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.6.27934

Abstract: In his article Serikov underlines the growing importance of researches on the perception of human appearance, raises a question about the importance of attractive appearance as a value, analyzes a number of socio-psychological and sociological researches of values and value orientations of modern young people and emphasizes that this is the value that Russian researchers haven't analyzed yet unlike Western researchers. The article provides the results of empirical research that studies the importance of attractive appearance as an instrumental value to achieve terminal life values of a universal nature. The research involved 140 students of the Southern Federal University (psychologies and philologies) aged 18 - 22 years. The diagnostics include such tests as the Appearance Importance Inventory (modified version of Rokeach Value Service). The Inventory has all terminal values but only one instrumental value which as attractive appearance. The research results demonstrate that as it is perceived by young men and women, attractive appearance may be an important factor that allows to achieve terminal values, however, the importance of this value is different for various values which allows to create the hierarchy. Respondents perceive attractive appearance as what may allow achieve such values as self-confidence, love, interesting job, social acceptance, health, well-being, success and happy family life. Attractive appearance is least important for the achievement of such values as happiness of others, creativity, wisdom and beauty of nature and art. 
Sultanova I.V., Orlova T.E. - Theoretical aspects of impact of the phenomenon of “post-truth” upon cognitive sphere of personality pp. 22-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2020.3.32674

Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of information environment upon people’s psyche. Currently, the volume of information accessible to human vastly exceeds the ability to digest it. The emerging information overload leads to nervous exhaustion, worsening of memory, lapse of attention concentration, and stress. Thus, there are created favorable conditions for negative influences of the policy of “post-truth” upon personality, mentality, perception of the world, and system of relationship. Using the instruments of rationality, the policy of “post-truth” turns them against rational thinking of a person. Affecting emotions and referring to personal beliefs, “post-truth” enhances stigmatization not even denying the facts. The research methodology combines the methods of fundamental psychological mechanisms and patterns of the origin and functioning of human psyche; methods general psychological research; methods of studying mental processes, mentality and personality; methods of cognitive psychology; technologies of examination of cognitive processes and communication in computer networks. The main conclusion consists in the statements that in the conditions of information overload and time deficit for analysis, a person makes hasty decisions based on his previous experience; while “post-truth” can be countered only through the development of the ability of critical thinking, giving assessment, learning to analyze and form own opinion regarding events ongoing in the world.
Kaptsevich O.A., Marin E.B., Osmachko N.V. - Psychological aspects of political participation and protest readiness of the youth of Primorsky Krai pp. 23-34

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2021.1.34979

Abstract: Changes that take place in the Russian society generate conflicts that are often implemented in  form of a protest. Youth is the peculiar actor of protest behavior. The subject of this research is the psychological, namely emotional aspect of the attitude towards politics and its engagement into political interest and political behavior (including protest behavior) of youth of the Far East. The research involved 254 students from several universities of Primorsky Krai. Questionnaire that included a number of blocks aimed at studying emotions, interest in politics, political participation, and protest behavior was used for collecting the information. Application of the categorical method of key components, the author determined the two forms of potential protest behavior: “radical” and “moderate”. “Radical protest” reveals correlation with an entire range of negative emotions, while “moderate protest” has relatively few emotional correlates and is more typical among female respondents. “Radical” protest indicates high political activity: its supporters actively participate in politics in one or another way; “moderate” protest does not indicate such correlates. Therefore, politically active youth is more likely to have radical protest moods. The analysis of emotional attitude towards government can be considered as a marker of protest potential and its vector towards “softer” or “aggressive” forms of protest. The acquired results are valuable for government authorities, political parties, and educational institutions.
Kapustina T.V. - Development and testing of screening method for diagnosing the propensity for extremism pp. 29-52

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2022.1.37293

Abstract: The subject of this research in the propensity for extremism in the context of socio-psychological maladaptation of personality, determined via a newly developed screening method. The empirical object of this research is the school students of Primorsky Krai (n=395) and students from other regions of the Russian Federation (n=629). The author examines the retest reliability, content and constructive validity of the method, including its theoretical substantiation. Description is given to the test norms for two versions of the method (form A-1 for schoolers and form A-2 for students). Special attention is turned to the construct of screening method – the proclivity for extremism, which is viewed through the lens of socio-psychological maladaptation of personality and may manifest in the instance of the following criteria: signs of depressiveness, loneliness, dehumanization of others, sense of superiority, motives of vengeance, positive attitude towards death. The scientific novelty lies in testing and adaptation of the two forms of screening method. The main conclusion lies in the validation of the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. It is worth noting that the individual with propensity for extremism not necessarily would commit extremist actions, however, falls into a risk group, since their behavior in maladaptive state can be unpredictable, inflicting conflict, suicide, deviant behavior. Screening method for diagnosing the propensity for extremism should be viewed as an instrument for preventing extremism in youth environment.
Ovrutskiy A.V. - Compulsive Consumption in Psychology and Economics: Differentiation Betweeen Approaches and Their Integration Within the Framework of Economic Psychology pp. 62-79

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.6.27780

Abstract: In his article Ovrutsky describes and analyses two approaches to compulsive consumption: psychological and economical (marketing-based). The researcher compares these two approaches based on the following parameters: description of the phenomenon, the nature of impulse, determinants, effects, consumption actors, evaluation, consequence, correlation, specific phenomena and corrective measures. The determinants of impulsive consumption within the framework of the psychological approach are as follows: 1. the consumer's personal dispositions, 2. affective patterns and 3. cognitive conditions that promote or inhibit the manifestation of impulsive behavior. The second feature of the psychological approach is the nosological context of the perception of the phenomenon (explicit or latent). Psychological scale of impulsive consumption: impulsive purchases - compulsive purchases - oniomania. The marketing approach is based on three axioms: 1. Compulsive buying is an unplanned purchase; 2. Compulsive consumption is largely determined by external factors and acts as a product of management of the marketing communications system; 3. Compulsive consumption is a positive form of social activity. The specific phenomena of compulsive consumption in marketing concepts are: label switching, lifestyle, and creative consumption. It is shown that the psychological approach focuses on the internal determinants of behavior, while the economical approach is based on the external determinants. In psychology, compulsive consumption is regarded as irrational, in marketing it is interpreted as rational. Thus, the researcher has considered the economical and psychological approach to compulsive consumption as integrative. Such integration should follow the path of disclosing the mechanisms of interaction between psychological and economical factors in describing and explaining compulsive consumption.
Savvina O.V. - The Reasons of Legalizing Abortions in the XXth Century and Modern Debates on the Moral Acceptability of Abortions pp. 221-243

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.3.12657

Abstract: In the article the reasons of legalization of abortions in the XX century in the countries of Europe, Great Britain, the USA and others are considered. The purpose of this consideration is forecasting of further development of discussion about legalization of abortions (mainly – abortions "at a request") in the world countries; definition of current trends in the solution of a question on abortions at the state level; and also identification of defining social groups in the solution of this question. Object of research is discussion about legalization of the abortions, developed in the XX century. In research the method of the philosophical analysis, a cultural and historical method, historical information, the analysis of the legal documents legalizing abortions "at a request" in the West countries (Great Britain, the USA) is used. The author comes to a conclusion that in the XX century priests and the medical personnel - the former social groups which had priority influence on the solution of a question of legalization of abortions lost the force and were compelled to participate in a new bioethical discourse on an equal basis with inhabitants and other experts. Formation of a bioethical discourse in the countries of Europe, Great Britain and the USA allowed to make decisions on abortion to women that on the one hand, released them, and with another – deprived a bioethical discourse of influence on a solution of the problem of legalization of abortions.
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