Psychologist - rubric Question at hand
Psychologist
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Question at hand
Elzesser A.S., Kapustina T.V. - Diagnostic Capabilities of Psychological Tests: State-of-the-Art pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2019.3.30013

Abstract: The matter under research is diagnostic capabilities of psychological tests. Despite frequent use, this term does not have a clear definition and can be interpreted in a different way in researches. The authors of the article examine such aspects of the topic as the use of the term 'diagnostic capabilities' in Russian empirical reserach, the structure of the term 'diagnostic capabilities' of psychologists tests, problems caused by the use of unreliable tests in psychological practice, reasons and solutions. The researchers have also carried out a practical analysis of the term 'diagnostic capabilities' as it has been used in recent empirical researches and have analyzed objective reasons of why unreliable psychological tests are commonly used. The main conclusions of the research are the following: 1. there is the 'theory-and-practice' dialectics in academic psychology: borders of 'diagnostic capabilities' are defined by the theoretical model of psychic phenomenon which, in its turn, is based on actual empirical data. 2. The definition of 'diagnostic capabilities' should include measurable effects and diagnostic attributes; applicability for particular research objectives and groups of respondents, standard samples or reference patterns that can be used in the process of interpretation, reliability, reasonability and validity. The term 'diagnostic capabilities' is identical to the term 'psychometric properties'. 3. Objective reasons for such common use of unreliable psychologists tests include: the use of out-of-date tests; availability of such tests; the fact that tests are used by other specialists but not psychologists; and use of computer interpretation of tests. 4. The authors describe ways to overcome this problem, i.e. to involve students in psychologists researches carried out by university departments; to develop the mechanism of distribution of psychologists tests; awareness of harmful effect of online diagnostics; increasing availability of online counselling; and encouraging better understanding of methodological bases of particular tests. 
Plavinskaya J.B. - The forgotten names in legal psychology: Erich Wulffen (1862-1936) pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2020.1.31873

Abstract: The subject of this research is the life path and scientific legacy of Erich Wulffen (1862-1936) – a prominent representative of the German legal psychology of the late XIX – early XX century. Unfortunately, his works are insufficiently studied in Russia. Therefore, the goal of this study consists in filling the information gaps on the evolution of legal psychology in Germany; analysis of the history of this field of scientific knowledge through the prism of personal biography and scientific contribution of the outstanding German scholar, whose works had a significant impact upon the development of Western European legal psychology. The following methods were applied: historical-functional, comparative-historical, systematization of psychological ideas of E. Wulffen, retrospective reconstruction of the evolution of his scientific ideas, and biographical that allowed determining his contribution to the formation of legal psychology as science. The author comprehensively examines the scientific legacy of Erich Wulffen – a scholar who made a significant contribution to the establishment and development of legal psychology in Germany. The new data is introduced into the scientific discourse allowing to analyze the logics and dynamics of evolution of psychological views, as well as determine the most important ideas of E. Wulffen that retain their relevance at present.
Kubyshkina M.L., Kazakova E.V., Gasheva A.A. - Agentic position with regards to health among middle-aged men and women pp. 1-14

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2020.2.32546

Abstract: The subject of this research is the agentic position with regards to health among middle-aged men and women. The author determined the structure of such position, described its common features (behavioral activity, aimed at health support understanding of need for a healthy lifestyle), features specific to men (attitude to health as a value), and features specific to women (health awareness). The goal of the article consists in examination of correlation between the agentic qualities of middle-aged men and women, determination of gender specificity of agency in the area of health. Research was conducted on 164 persons, aged 22-58 (80 men and 84 women), sampling aligned by gender, age and educational background. The method of correlation analysis allowed revealing the agentic personality traits that support active stand on health: common for men and women, such as autonomy, self-worth, creativity, assertiveness, content with life, overall internality and internality in achievements); as well as gender-specific. Women also feature internality in professional and family spheres; while men feature activity, mediacy, and internality in health sphere. Considering that the problem of human as an agent of health is at the initial stage of development, the acquired data would be useful for more profound understanding of the topic, as well as formulation of objectives for furher fundamental and applied studies.  
Kubyshkina M.L., Kazakova E.V., Prokhorova I.F. - Childhood emotional experience as a prerequisite for optimism and social activeness in senior age pp. 1-21

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2020.3.32722

Abstract: The subject of this research is the childhood emotional experience of the people of senior age, i.e. the “children of war” generation. The author pursues the goal to study their emotional experiences associated with childhood that fell on the war period as the prerequisite for their life optimism and social activeness in the senior age. The analysis is bases on the materials of biographical narratives collected over the period from 2012 to 2019. The sampling included 34 men aged 75-85, and 57 women aged 75-90. The method of non-standardized biographical interviews became the means for collecting data. The acquired narratives were processed through the method of content analysis (for formalization of the variables “optimism”, “pessimism” and “social activity”), and comprising structured descriptions of emotional experience of the wartime childhood, summarizes in the basis of two highlighted nominations – socially active optimists and pessimists with low social activeness. It was determined that the positive emotional experience of the children of war contributed to formation of their optimistic perception of the world and subjective position on life, which remained until senior age and manifest in their social activeness and interaction with the surrounding world, while the negative emotional experience created the foundation for pessimistic worldview and contributed to formation of infantile position on life, which in senior age manifest in low social activeness, helplessness and complaints to the world. The author indicates seven characteristic of the positive and six characteristics of the negative childhood emotional experience, which can be viewed as the prerequisites for optimism/pessimism and social activeness/passiveness in the senior age.  
Serikov G.V. - Attractive Appearance as an Instrumental Value and its Importance Among Young People pp. 21-31

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.6.27934

Abstract: In his article Serikov underlines the growing importance of researches on the perception of human appearance, raises a question about the importance of attractive appearance as a value, analyzes a number of socio-psychological and sociological researches of values and value orientations of modern young people and emphasizes that this is the value that Russian researchers haven't analyzed yet unlike Western researchers. The article provides the results of empirical research that studies the importance of attractive appearance as an instrumental value to achieve terminal life values of a universal nature. The research involved 140 students of the Southern Federal University (psychologies and philologies) aged 18 - 22 years. The diagnostics include such tests as the Appearance Importance Inventory (modified version of Rokeach Value Service). The Inventory has all terminal values but only one instrumental value which as attractive appearance. The research results demonstrate that as it is perceived by young men and women, attractive appearance may be an important factor that allows to achieve terminal values, however, the importance of this value is different for various values which allows to create the hierarchy. Respondents perceive attractive appearance as what may allow achieve such values as self-confidence, love, interesting job, social acceptance, health, well-being, success and happy family life. Attractive appearance is least important for the achievement of such values as happiness of others, creativity, wisdom and beauty of nature and art. 
Sultanova I.V., Orlova T.E. - Theoretical aspects of impact of the phenomenon of “post-truth” upon cognitive sphere of personality pp. 22-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2020.3.32674

Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of information environment upon people’s psyche. Currently, the volume of information accessible to human vastly exceeds the ability to digest it. The emerging information overload leads to nervous exhaustion, worsening of memory, lapse of attention concentration, and stress. Thus, there are created favorable conditions for negative influences of the policy of “post-truth” upon personality, mentality, perception of the world, and system of relationship. Using the instruments of rationality, the policy of “post-truth” turns them against rational thinking of a person. Affecting emotions and referring to personal beliefs, “post-truth” enhances stigmatization not even denying the facts. The research methodology combines the methods of fundamental psychological mechanisms and patterns of the origin and functioning of human psyche; methods general psychological research; methods of studying mental processes, mentality and personality; methods of cognitive psychology; technologies of examination of cognitive processes and communication in computer networks. The main conclusion consists in the statements that in the conditions of information overload and time deficit for analysis, a person makes hasty decisions based on his previous experience; while “post-truth” can be countered only through the development of the ability of critical thinking, giving assessment, learning to analyze and form own opinion regarding events ongoing in the world.
Ovrutskiy A.V. - Compulsive Consumption in Psychology and Economics: Differentiation Betweeen Approaches and Their Integration Within the Framework of Economic Psychology pp. 62-79

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.6.27780

Abstract: In his article Ovrutsky describes and analyses two approaches to compulsive consumption: psychological and economical (marketing-based). The researcher compares these two approaches based on the following parameters: description of the phenomenon, the nature of impulse, determinants, effects, consumption actors, evaluation, consequence, correlation, specific phenomena and corrective measures. The determinants of impulsive consumption within the framework of the psychological approach are as follows: 1. the consumer's personal dispositions, 2. affective patterns and 3. cognitive conditions that promote or inhibit the manifestation of impulsive behavior. The second feature of the psychological approach is the nosological context of the perception of the phenomenon (explicit or latent). Psychological scale of impulsive consumption: impulsive purchases - compulsive purchases - oniomania. The marketing approach is based on three axioms: 1. Compulsive buying is an unplanned purchase; 2. Compulsive consumption is largely determined by external factors and acts as a product of management of the marketing communications system; 3. Compulsive consumption is a positive form of social activity. The specific phenomena of compulsive consumption in marketing concepts are: label switching, lifestyle, and creative consumption. It is shown that the psychological approach focuses on the internal determinants of behavior, while the economical approach is based on the external determinants. In psychology, compulsive consumption is regarded as irrational, in marketing it is interpreted as rational. Thus, the researcher has considered the economical and psychological approach to compulsive consumption as integrative. Such integration should follow the path of disclosing the mechanisms of interaction between psychological and economical factors in describing and explaining compulsive consumption.
Savvina O.V. - The Reasons of Legalizing Abortions in the XXth Century and Modern Debates on the Moral Acceptability of Abortions pp. 221-243

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.3.12657

Abstract: In the article the reasons of legalization of abortions in the XX century in the countries of Europe, Great Britain, the USA and others are considered. The purpose of this consideration is forecasting of further development of discussion about legalization of abortions (mainly – abortions "at a request") in the world countries; definition of current trends in the solution of a question on abortions at the state level; and also identification of defining social groups in the solution of this question. Object of research is discussion about legalization of the abortions, developed in the XX century. In research the method of the philosophical analysis, a cultural and historical method, historical information, the analysis of the legal documents legalizing abortions "at a request" in the West countries (Great Britain, the USA) is used. The author comes to a conclusion that in the XX century priests and the medical personnel - the former social groups which had priority influence on the solution of a question of legalization of abortions lost the force and were compelled to participate in a new bioethical discourse on an equal basis with inhabitants and other experts. Formation of a bioethical discourse in the countries of Europe, Great Britain and the USA allowed to make decisions on abortion to women that on the one hand, released them, and with another – deprived a bioethical discourse of influence on a solution of the problem of legalization of abortions.
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