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Publications of Klimkov Oleg
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2018-4
Klimkov O. - Russian medieval thought and Byzantine Hesychasm pp. 9-16

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2018.4.27599

Abstract: The object of this research is the influence of the Byzantine Hesychasm upon the formation and development of Russian medieval thought. The works of Simeon New Theologian and Gregory of Sinai made a significant contribution to the development of this spiritual movement, as well as to the further systematization and conceptual understanding of this doctrine in Byzantium and medieval Russia, influencing the formation of its religious-ritual and philosophical-theological culture. The main representatives of the Russian religious thought of this era are Nilus of Sora, Artemy Troitsky and Maximus the Greek. The author uses the historical-analytical and phenomenological methods, resorting, if necessary, to the method of comparative analysis and historical-philosophical reconstruction. The following are the main points of this research: a review of the ups and downs of "smart doing" in Russia; analysis of the continuity of Byzantine and Russian thought; a study of the spiritual specifics of the Russian Middle Ages; study of the problem of religious freedom and “self-rule” of a person; revealing the significance of the reception of Hesychastic ideas in Russian medieval thought.
Philosophy and Culture, 2018-2
Klimkov O. - Doctrine on mysticism of Symeon the New Theologian and his role in development of the Athos-Byzantine hesychasm pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2018.2.25413

Abstract: The object of this article is the mystic-ascetic doctrine of the prominent representative of the religious tradition of Athos-Byzantine hesychasm Symeon the New Theologian. The author examines his role in development of the theological-mystic ideas that saw their final realization in the era of hesychast revival in Byzantine in the XIV century, which marked the continuous so-called hesychast disputes, followed by the victory of hesychast party led by Gregory Palamas. The works of Symeon greatly contributed into the development of this religious movements and its further systematization and conceptualization in Byzantine and Medieval Rus’, affecting the formation of the religious-traditional and philosophical-theologian culture of multiple countries that were a part of the Orthodox-Byzantine civilizational space. The main sections of this research are the following: overview of Symeon’s compilations and history of their translation; consideration of his role within the framework of the Orthodox-Hesychast tradition; brief research of the teaching of Isaac of Nineveh as his religious ancestor; analysis of the mystic-theological ideas of Symeon; determination of his role in development of the doctrine of late-Byzantine hesychasm; comparison of the key moments of his doctrine with the concept of Gregory Palamas; revelation of the religious-cultural meaning of the reception of his views in the Russian medieval thought.
Philosophical Thought, 2018-1
Klimkov O. - The doctrine of Gregory of Sinai and its impact upon the hesychast revival in the XIV century pp. 14-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.1.25164

Abstract: The object of this research is the theological-mystical doctrine of Gregory of Sinai, emerged within the centuries-old monastic practice of “mental prayer”. His works made a fundamental contribution into the systematization and conceptual comprehension of this teaching in Byzantium and medieval Rus’, significantly affecting the development of the religious-philosophical culture. The subject of this research is the Gregory’s active efforts on distribution of the revived by him doctrine of silence and sobering as a true meaning of the monastic life far beyond Bizantium, as well as his contribution into the hesychast revival in the XIV century. The main chapters of the indicated teaching are the following: philosophical-anthropological views of Gregory of Sinai; his concepts of astonishment and fervor; analysis of passions from the perspective of Plato’s three parts of the soul; classification of the virtues; representation on the specificity of personality of pedagogue, orator, and philosopher; concept of spiritual feeling; admonition for Hesychius; theological demarcation of the subjects of spiritual contemplation.
Philosophy and Culture, 2018-1
Klimkov O. - To the question about hesychast roots of the creative work of Artemy Troitsky pp. 1-12

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2018.1.25291

Abstract: The object of this research is the problem of impact of the Athos-Byzantine hesychasm upon the personality and works of the Russian publicist of the XVI century Artemy Troitsky. The subject of analysis is his compositions viewed in the context of cultural-historical and religious-social situation of the era. Examination of his life and works is conducted with consideration of scientific results on this problematic in the pre-revolutionary, Soviet, and contemporary literature. The author also reviews the sociopolitical aspects of the activity of Russian hesychasts that found reflection primarily in the non-possessors movement. The following conclusions were made: the works of Artemy Troitsky mark unambiguous hesychast influence; his hesychasm in multiple aspects differs from the theological-philosophical doctrine of the late Byzantine hesychasm, Palamism, and established as a result of hesychast disputes Byzantium in the XIV century; Artemy fully remains within the framework of Sinaitism – the mystical-ascetic teaching of Gregory of Sinai; his views indicate a particular moral-ethical and sociopolitical orientation that received its expression in the non-possessors movement.
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2018-1
Klimkov O. - The problem of knowledge of God in the mind of Gregory Palamas pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2018.1.25828

Abstract: The object of this research is one of the most significant and topical problems of the hesychast polemic that took place in Byzantium of XIV century, namely the development and comprehension of the Orthodox theory of the knowledge of God in the concept of its chief representative Gregory Palamas. The subject of this research is a concrete historical discussion, which has formed and settled his views upon the role and place of philosophical knowledge within the religious doctrine of hesychasm. The author also examines the views of Palama’s opponent Varlaam, whose doctrine contains the features of intellectualism of ancient philosophy. Using the phenomenological-analytical method, the author studies the problem of Palamite gnoseology. The fundamental for Palama difference between the essence and energy of the mind as well as his teaching on theosis are subjected to analysis. The author underlines the close link between the gnoseological and anthropological problematic, as the possibility of the knowledge of God is put in direct relation to the means of human existence, which includes not only its intellectual and emotional spheres, but the corporeal practices as well. An observation is made on the dominance of existential approach over existential metaphysics in Palama’s concept.
Philosophy and Culture, 2017-12
Klimkov O. - Philosophical views of Maximus the Greek and their relation with the hesychast gnoseology pp. 53-65

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2017.12.24844

Abstract: The object of this research is the philosophy of Maximus the Greek (Michael Trivolis), the prominent thinker, interpreter, and religious-cultural figure of Russia of the XVI century. Based on the analysis of his works of various genres, styles and themes, the author comprised a single and cohesive image of his philosophical views. Examining the philosopher’s ideas and way of thinking is conducted in the context of the religious-cultural situation of the era, as well as peculiarities of his personality and public activity. The author applies the historical-analytical and phenomenological methods, relying on the method of historical-philosophical reconstruction. In the course of analysis of the texts of Maximus the Greek, was formulated his comprehension of philosophy and external sciences, which allowed referring to his gnoseology that includes two different ways of cognition. The author was able to establish the fundamental link between his philosophy and the tradition of Byzantine-Athonite hesychasm, within which were developing the main intentions of his works. The article analyzes the teaching of Maximus the Greek on the mind and soul that traces its origin in ancient philosophy, but saturated with the Christian content. The author also examines the thinker’s concept regarding human autocracy and free will.
Philosophy and Culture, 2017-8
Klimkov O. - Reception of Byzantine-Athos hesychasm in the teaching of Nil Sorsky pp. 49-61

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2017.8.23887

Abstract: The subject of this research is the teaching of Nil Sorksy placed in the context of evolution of the ideas and spiritual practice of the Byzantine-Athos hesychasm, which greatly influences the establishment of the Russian medieval culture and mentality. The article suggests analysis of the fundamental texts that belong to Nil Sorsky, which makes relevant the contained within them religious-philosophical problematic. A general overview of his literary legacy with consideration the socio-historical realities of the era is provided in the research. The author notes certain conceptual moments in development of the Russian Orthodoxy, associated with the famous disputes between Josephites and Nonpossessors. Special attention is given to revelation of the philosophical and psychological aspects of Nil’s teaching, as well as the peculiarities that accompanied his reception of the theoretical, and mostly, practical legacy of hesychasm. There is noted dominance of the ascetic-psychological and moral-ethical ideologies over the theological-contemplative. A conclusion is made on the direct correspondence of the spiritual-mystical and socio-political components in the Russian hesychasm.
Philosophical Thought, 2017-6
Klimkov O. - The theory of double truth and the problem of impassivity in the Hesychast discussion pp. 1-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2017.6.23163

Abstract: The object of this research is the conceptually important questions of Hesychast discussion that took place in Byzantine Empire of the XIV century, such as status and meaning of philosophy in general and theory of double truth in particular, as well as the essence and role of impassivity in achieving the highest knowledge. The subject of this research is the material of polemics of Gregory Palamas with Barlaam, during the course of which have formed his views upon the role and place of philosophical knowledge in the spiritual teaching of Hesychasm. Applying the phenomenological-analytical method, the author examines the problem of correlation between mind and body in the process of spiritual improvement, which results in conclusion about the two opposing approaches towards understanding of the connection between psychic and physical in human nature. The article also analyzes the crucial for Palamas distinction between the essence and energy of mind and his doctrine about theosis. The author underlines a tight link of gnoseological and anthropological problematic due to the facts that the ability of cognition of God directly depends on the way of human existence that includes not just his emotional and intellectual spheres, but also bodily practices. The article notes the elements of spiritual succession between the Byzantic Hesychasm and Russian religious philosophy, which develop on the basis of the universal Eastern Christian tradition.  
Philosophical Thought, 2017-5
Klimkov O. - Hesychia and philosophy in Gregory Palamas’ doctrine pp. 14-30

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2017.5.22444

Abstract: The object of this research is one of the most important and relevant questions of hesychast polemic in Byzantine Empire of the XIV century, namely the status and meaning of philosophy in the concept of its prominent representative Gregory Palamas. The subject of the analysis if the particular historical discussion, during the course of which the philosopher established and consolidated his views upon the role and place of philosophical knowledge within the spiritual teaching of hesychasm. The author also carefully examines the views of Palamas’ opponent Barlaam, tracing the features of intellectualism of the antique philosophy within it. Using the phenomenological analytical method, the author analyzes the problem of correlation of mind and body in the process of spiritual improvement, which leads to the conclusion about the two antagonistic approaches towards understanding of the link between psychic and physical in human nature. The work explores the profound for Palamas distinction between the essence and energy of mind, as well as his teaching about theosis. The author underlines a close interconnection of gnoseological and anthropological problematic, because the ability of cognizing God directly depends on the way of human existence, which includes not just the intellectual and emotional spheres, but also the corporeal practices. The article reviews the question of expression of mystical experience, which is connected with the problem of religious and metaphysical authority. The conclusion is made that Palamas’ clarification of mind outgrows the initial ethical-psychological level, and reveals its essence in gnoseological and ontological dimension.
Philosophy and Culture, 2017-4
Klimkov O. - Vision of God and apophatic theology in the dispute of Palamas with Barlaam pp. 1-19

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2017.4.22957

Abstract: The object of this research is one of the most important and relevant questions of Hesychast controversy that took place on Byzantine Empire in the XIV century, namely the meaning and correlation of the two approaches towards cognition of the divine reality – vision of God and apophatic theology, reviewed from gnoseological and existential perspective. The subject of this research is the discussion of Gregory Palamas with Barlaam, in the course of which had established and crystalized his views upon the role and place of the apophatic theology in work of the experienced contemplation of God. Using the phenomenological and analytical method, the author examines the problem of interrelation of these distinct methods of the cognition of God, which results in conclusion on the existence of the two opposite approaches towards the practice of spiritual and thinking activity of a human. The article demonstrates the distinctness of the apophaticism of Hesychasm, which is different from the traditional Christian apophatic theology, as well as a specific role of the religious experience. The author analyzes the crucial for Palamas criterion between the essence and energy of mind and his doctrine about theosis. The author underlines the close connection between the gnoseological and anthropological problematic, because the possibility of cognition of God directly depends on the way of human existence, which includes not only his intellectual and emotional spheres, but also the corporeal practices. It is noted that there are elements of spiritual succession between the Byzantium Hesychasm and the Russian religious philosophy that gained momentum on the basis of the unified Eastern Christian traditions. The article also examines the question of expression of mystical experience, which is connected with the problem of religious and metaphysical authority. The conclusion is made that Palamas’ clarification of mind outgrows the initial ethical-psychological level, and reveals its essence in gnoseological and ontological dimension.
Litera, 2017-4
Klimkov O. - Philosophical Concept of Religion in Vladimir Soloviev's Works pp. 94-102

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2017.4.24817

Abstract: The object of this research is Vladimir Solovyev's philosophy of religion described in general terms of his philosophy. In his research Klimkov pays special attention to the concept of religious mind developed by Solovyov in his writing 'Readings about God-Like Humanity' as well as a number of other works. Klimkov analyzes the basic prerequisite for Solovyov's philosophy of religion, in particular, the idea that religious belief and religious experience need to be completed with religious mind (or religious way of thinking). Noteworthy that this kind of thinking may become part of cultural experience of both believers and atheists. Using phenomenological and historical analysis methods, the author of the article analyzes the main question whether it is possible at all to understand religious phenomena from the point of view of philosophy. The main conclusions of the reserach are the author's statement that relevations of religious experience are a continuous process in our life, the author's theory of 'religious branches' and ideas about coincidence of historical and logical orders in the process of religious insights and that it is necessary to try to avoid rationalism extremes in philosophical interpretation of religion. The author also defines three main elements, nature, God's beginning and human personality, and describes three stages of religious development. 
Litera, 2017-2
Klimkov O. - The "Gospel Philosophy" of Tihon Zadonsky in Terms of Russian Spiritual Culture pp. 54-73

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2017.2.23298

Abstract: In his article Klimkov studies the significance of personality and spiritual philosophy of Tihon Zadonsky in terms of secularization processes of the Russian mentality. His main literary works and their influence in modern culture are considered. It is noted that his works are still insufficiently studied at the present time and need a deeper understanding. The historical conflict between imperial ideology, the official church position and the self-consciousness of the individual believer clearly manifested in his life is being analyzed. The researcher also raises the problem of the relationship between state, church and society. Klimkov has used the historical phenomenological method as well as literary analysis and philosophical theological research methods when necessary. Becoming a bishop, he very soon began to dislike established order of doing things and the life of a church official. His work, dedicated to true Christianity, reveals the untruth of false Christianity, which has become ubiquitous. An ideal of true holiness is revealed, connected with the deep needs of the human soul and the world order as a whole. The extremes of religious mysticism and secular rationalism make Tihon to seek a new path for the Orthodox spirituality, as reflected in the increasing personalization of the Christian life and the role of personal faith in comparison with the traditional religious way of life based on rituals and ceremonies. The researcher also analyzes religious and philosophical views of Tihon Zadonsky. Special attention is paid to his anthropology and gnoseology. The Klimkov underlines that Tihon Zadonsky's way of thinking deeply correlates with Orthodox mentality that has gained an adequate theoretic expression despite the scholastic narrative method. 
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