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Publications of Spektor David Mikhailovich
Philosophy and Culture, 2019-9
Spektor D.M. - The games of time and time of the game pp. 11-23


Abstract: The subject of this research is the category of the whole; at first sight, its popularity has faded, resembling the legacy of the “old metaphysics” alongside its other categories: substance, entity, spirit, etc. Although, being transported into the register of procedure, structures and systematicity, it did disappear from the methodological horizon; one of its modern reincarnations is time, firs and foremost, in interpretation of M. Heidegger. Multiple criticisms of universalities avoided the totality of temporal, and moving a bit forward along them, totality of the time as a form that excludes universality from the “content”. At the same time, the “game” represents a relevant horizon of ontology, exists within it in parallel to “temporality”; started obtaining its own history the game has no ontology and in no way (productively) can be correlated with “time”. The research is oriented towards filling up this lacuna; its methods are aimed at reconstruction of the question and restoration of time-game genealogy, as well as correlation of the form and content of temporality in such relation. The scientific novelty consists in outlining the dialectics that is based on the game of transitions (circulation) of the form and content of the time (category of time as circulation of the form and content).  It is established that the form of time manifested as a primary subject of prior analytics, while the contents in its universality (aphoristically expressed by the transition of challenges into answers) completely fell out of the analytic field; similar is the fate of circulation – being restored as a core category of whole-time.
Philosophy and Culture, 2019-9
Spektor D.M. - Sacredness of the Other pp. 24-39


Abstract: The subject of this research is the sacred viewed as the experiences in its earthly orientation, in other words – “religion only within the boundaries of faith”. The research is based on monism of the will, identifies as motive that historically precedes “human” and one that formed the latter. Sacredness in light of the accepted paradigm is considered as one of the (dialectical) poles of the will, taken by metaphysics for the Unified (Good), by ontology – for being (Spirit, being within itself, being of the Other, etc.). Such paradigm defines the methodology for this study; within its framework is conducted gradual reduction of the “religious” to the initial feeling (obsession); in the context of this state, initiated by scarification, the author examines ontology of the will in its structural similarity with the being. The scientific novelty is substantiated by reconstruction of the circumstances of genesis and analytics of mechanism of “containment” of social being; for the first time “sacred” is introduced as a transcendental (dialectical) paradigm, prefacing givenness of one or another form of existence-realization (subject-object relation) with fight strategy for the position-subject at “starting point” of self-conditionality (freedom).
Psychologist, 2019-5
Spektor D.M. - Machines that Create People or the Third Way of Psychology pp. 27-42


Abstract: The subject of the study is the subject of psychology in the larger relationship. In the context of general doubt that a mind presents a subject of psychology, the study determines the subject in the sphere of motivation as a sensory-conscious and institutional mechanism, the leading subsystems of which are faith (religious institutions), power (political organizations), and duty (economic institutions). The author introduces the mentioned to psychology as pre-conscious leading motives, the structure of which determines (is determined) the architecture of the external and inner world, and, first of all, their appeal. The study reconsiders the regard of faith, power, and duty, in which patterns the deep reconstruction of their origin occurs, in the course of which it regains its prime unity (syncretism). The scientific novelty of the study is due to the establishment of the third way of psychology, which means moving beyond the traditional alternative sensuality/consciousness towards institutes which motivate a person: the spiritual, political, and economic ones. The treatment of collectivity (in accordance with stressed motives) and the treatment of motives (inside the collectivities) determine a new path for psychological institutions. 
Philosophical Thought, 2019-3
Spektor D.M. - The sense of time. Preliminary notes pp. 20-33


Abstract: This article reviews the ideas of transcendentalism mainly in the context of temporality. As each now exists (truly), conforming with the idea (prototype), in a simply existent it remains in “gray zone” of yet not being (undetermined veracity); its identification, representing “endowment with being” unfolds in space and time; in such relation, appropriate become a question on the nature of the factors of anamnesis, which outside the comparison with “prototype” (correspondingly, regulation and procedures of determining the veracity of the idea of such comparison)  cannot be established. This leads to actualization of the alternative paths of the ontology of anamnesis: whether it can be realizes in the “empirical” forms of space and time, or in the imposed conditions of anamnesis itself, which (as its transcendental figures) include space and time (determination of veracity of space and time). The reconstruction of analytical approaches towards temporality, conducted in accordance with the signified pattern, notes the hypostatized forms of time (perception, realization) to the detriment of its (form) content; the latter (content of universality of form of time) in this regard reveals in the main areas of identification (phenomenology) and (historical) sources (immanent basis of transcendental factors) of perception.
Urban Studies, 2018-1
Spektor D.M. - To the architecture of space. Essay on theory. Part II pp. 90-115


Abstract: The second part of the study pursues the earlier planned reconstruction of space in its connection with reality. The previously explicated space-time and game relationship continues to be considered in its genesis, which from now on is complemented by an analytics of mutual development of the game and real space. Their direct comparison is preceded by analysis of the category of "real", in the process of which it is revealed as a phenomenon of the New Time and correlated with its conditioning categories: body and process. Such are examined in terms of the growing over recent centuries cohesion of ideology, politics and economics; as a result, "reality" is revealed as the space of their game, which allows explicating its main categories – real space and space of the real (in their dialectics). Accordingly, the method of research consists in the historical and logical reconstruction of the concepts of "reality" and space, their connection and (dialectical) difference; genesis of the method of spatial establishment is associated with "conditioning-realistic" (perception-action). The scientific novelty lies in formulation of the notion of "stich", which seams/unseams the "edges" of  reality; It is demonstrated that architecture proceeds from the necessity of exogenous containment of "human nature"; at the same time, its structure (the category of space/time) is related to the game and conditioned by it; furthermore, with evolution of realism, the space/time of the game (archaics) and the reality diverge even to the full glassiness; the real space yields to space of the reality, while total symbolism gives way to signification.
Philosophical Thought, 2017-10
Spektor D.M. - Time and transcendental subject. Kant and Hegel pp. 18-33


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the refinement of the concept of transcendental subject interpreted by Kant and Hegel, as well as the connection of this concept with the category of time. As demonstrated in the article, the initial prototype of its institutionalization is manifested by the "process" in duality of its interpretation, on one hand,  substantiated by technological invective, and on the other – by judicial allusions, which predetermined the implicit a priori of transcendental temporality, particularly, the principle of distancing from the incident, exclusion of reference from the composition explicitly-authentic, role of the procedure (codification) in its reconstruction, etc. The method of research is based on the analysis and reconstruction of the concepts of "time", "procedure" and "judicial proceedings" (substantiated in its unity, including the etymological closeness of the concepts of "history", "truth" and "the plaintiff"). The scientific novelty consist in revealing the relationship between "time" and "history" as the form and content of existence in terms of the German classical philosophy. It is shown that the efficiency of such dilution imposed high cost on philosophy: the concept of the transcendental subject and the categorical conceptual apparatus of dialectical logic have been acquired at the cost of loss by notion of time of the link with human being, assigning to the “transcendentality” of natural allusions that have yet to be overcome.
Architecture and design, 2017-3
Spektor D.M. - Notes on space pp. 1-12


Abstract: The subject of this research is space in the new meaning acquired in the late XX century, gradually substituting the exclusively occupying philosophy “time”. This process is far from being completed, as this research makes no pretense on the finality of conclusions, first and foremost charting the new approached to understanding, leaning on the philosophy of space, history of its creation, particular organoleptics, bodily allusions and initial differentiation, to which are referred the specificities of the sacred and the secular. Method of research is based on analysis and reconstruction of the concepts of “space”, tracing of its archaic origins and logics of its establishment, which besides the acquisition of depth, juxtaposing the previous dimensions of the “sublime” and “earth” with differentiations of the “capital” and virtual. The scientific novelty lies in revelation of genesis of the spatial categories, particularly the criticism of fairly influential representations concerning the “externalization” and “alienation” of space. Reference to the actual history demonstrate that space begins from the “alienation” of human “essence” from a separate individual-body, its subordination to the logics of the universal being. As the latter releases from metaphysical allusion, it must be considered in own completion, such mechanism that appear on one hand as spatial (combination of the appointed places: temple, palace, square, city), and on the other – space of the machines and mechanisms of modernity and compatibility of the action.
Philosophical Thought, 2017-1
Spektor D.M. - Reversibility: drastic reassessment of radicalism of the symbolic exchange pp. 42-56


Abstract: The subject of this research is the symbolic exchange and its correlation with the death (in Jean Baudrillard’s rendition). The article demonstrated that the fundamental thoughts of Baudrillard, contained in critical refutation of the dominant positivism of accumulation through opposition to the metaphysically interpreted “death”, and apologies of “reversibility” of the fundamental vital processes, are deep and rightful in its way. In addition to that, Baudrillard is confused in his radicalism, nearly always disproving himself. The article attempts to separate the wheat from the chaff, i.e. contradistinguish Baudrillard’s criticism of nihilism from the resulting from it consequences. The method of this works is associated with the analysis and theoretical reconstruction of the notion of “reversibility” compared to the category of “reversion”. The abstractness of formal structures is being gradually counterpoised with the dialectics of attainment of the form (life) through destruction-rebirth (death). The scientific novelty consist in formulation of the category of “reversibility” in the areas of communication (language), transgressive transformation-dedication, and temporal cycle. The “reversibility” (authentic) is being put in contrast with the “rotation” (temptation) that is primarily views in modifications of transformation, which are close to reversibility and simultaneously inheriting the magical substitution, as well as seduction, perversion, and other remarks of the fall.
Psychologist, 2017-1
Spektor D.M. - To Be and to Have: the Will to Power of the Flesh and the Embodiment pp. 1-15


Abstract: The subject of the research is the relationship and difference between the concepts of will-to-power and possession (treatment). In a number of fundamental studies of the last time they were mostly opposed, the first (to be) at the same time correlated with the true being, while the second was correlated with a simulacrum and deceit despite the variety of reasons and phenomenology of the latter. At the same time the indispensable presence of the phenomenon of possession in the history (in particular, possession of "one's own body", "yourself") suggests non-randomness of its direct and indirect manifestations. In this regard, the author of the research sets a task of reconstruction of the "name" of the ontology and its establishment (ontological) connectivity with the will-to-power (being). The research method is based on the analysis and reconstruction of the concepts of "power" and "property" in terms of their relationship; the most significant feature of the method is a sequential approximation of anthropological and logical forms (categories of incarnation, possession and "external" in the imperative of the "real"). The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author develops a category of transition and ontological connection modes of being and possession (of power and property) in their non-speculative, but anthropological attribution, reduced to the great-phenomenon of "exchange", "will" and sacrifice. The "ownership" form is enclosed in a form of "involvement" and "participation" (incarnation) initially at the level of the flesh (body).
Urban Studies, 2017-1
Spektor D.M. - To the architecture of space. Outline of theory. Part I pp. 61-82


Abstract: This research is aimed at the analytics of space, and its "secondary goal" is the understanding of principles of its architecture. In the introduction, it is demonstrated that the direct access to such is impossible, and therefore, the future theory of architecture is forced to proceed to the matter, clearing the place of construction, in particular, specifying the ontology of the problem. In addition to the direct reference to the philosophical classics (M. Heidegger, J. Baudrillard, etc.), the initiator of such undertaking is had to keep in the field of view a significant number of other sources: philosophers have dealt with the problem of time for too long, associating it with the existence; throughout the XX century, primarily the culturologists, anthropologists, sociologists, and others were involved into the research of space. Due to this fact, the consolidation of the results of all the "perspectives" is one of the extremely relevant tasks of the architecture of space. Thus, the method of examination is evolves out of the formulation of the problem, and consists in the critical reviews of the ontology of space (time), as well as integration of the achievements of culturology, anthropology, and sociology of space. The scientific novelty of the research consists in formulation of foundations of the new ontology, which aligns the architecture of "place and time" with the new to phenomenology category of reference, and the derived from it (transcendental) principles of the spatial structure. "Space" is being reconstructed with regards to such (game) prototypes, in the historical form of which it had emerged and transformed (over the millennia) into the common reality (real space).
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-12
Spektor D.M. - Eternity of space and time, and their transformation


Abstract: The subject of this research is the transformation of time and space (transformation of time into space). Substantiation in this case is the reduction to the core, which allows restoring the contours of the phenomena, space-time in their certainty and distinction to the preceding. As the historical-logical “foundation”, the author establishes the specific state that reconciles with “eternity”, and at the same time with the typical integral sacred. It is demonstrated that the most essential side is the transformation if the “internal” and “external”, at the same time, things such as states correspond to the “space” of the external and “time” of the internal that have developed within them. The method of the research is substantiated by the analysis and reconstruction of the notions of “time” and “space” in their transformation; the most significant feature of this method is the gradual reconciliation of the anthropological and logical forms (category of own-Other, connected by the logically transgressive transition). The scientific novelty lies in formulation of the category of “transformation” that is historically preceding to attribution of dyads of reciprocal of internal/external and time/space. The author is first to review the space and time as sub specie aeternitatis of pragmatic outcome and transcendental sensibility. The latter in its unconditionality (transcendental antinomia) suggest the possibility of correlation of the dyads in form of external-spatial (antagonism forces) and internal-timely (dramatism of feelings).
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-8
Spektor D.M. - Time and space sub specie aeternitatis.


Abstract: This article examines the key definitions of time and space. It is demonstrated that if time in the XX century attains the character of the ultimate ontological foundation substantiating the corresponding interpretations, then space, which within the framework of physical theories meets time, in philosophical searches, on the contrary, counterpoises time. Space is endowed with the role of “reservoir” that is close to the role of “immanent dwell”. Mainly on the example of M. Heidegger’s philosophy, the author demonstrate the incorrectness of such approach and substantiates the need for the new ontology, which interprets the space itself as an ontological condition for materialization (fulfill). The scientific novelty consists in enhancing “spatiality” with ontological importance. The author is firs to underline the specificity of the initial homogeneity of space and time, the uniting ambivalence of the “movement towards integral” (homogenous), which in space is designated as aestheticism, and in time – the “establishment” and “agonal confrontation” (heterogeneous); which in space is manifested as expansion and assignment-assimilation, while in time as the tempo and speed of the “organic” interaction.
Man and Culture, 2016-6
Spektor D.M. - Symbolic exchange, death, and mystery of gift pp. 68-83


Abstract: The subject of this article is the symbolic exchange in its connection with “death” and mystery of gift. The author thoroughly examines such aspects of the topic as archaic equivalence of the value and sacred object of the exchangeable females. Special attention is given to the primary nature of sacrifice that is not the subject of exchange (with gods, dead, etc.), but inspires the “state of enthusiasm” and justifies the (secondary) value of exchangeable things (value). Sacrificial offering on one hand, and exogamy on the other, if meticulously reconstructed, allows re-creating the gift-exchange logic – a substrate of human subjectivity, realized by the inter-communal relationship. The method of this research is associated with the analysis and historical reconstruction of the gift, sacrifice, and symbolic exchange. Its logical counterpoint lies in criticism of the existing interpretations. The scientific novelty consists in proof of the fact that the act of exchange “generates the surplus value”, transforming the object (women) from the given into impersonal and generalized “consumer product” as the primary prototype of “commodity”, in which the common property – usefulness – dominates over the singular specificity. Without having understood of the initial profit of exchange, it is impossible to understand the development of its forms.
Psychologist, 2016-5
Spektor D.M. - Doomness and Transgression. Georges Bataille pp. 40-52


Abstract: The subject of the research covers transgression in relation to phenomena traced back primarily in writings of Georges Bataille (limit states of emotional experience and, at the same time, mass practice and actions inducing the "transition state"). The study shows that a) above mentioned practices are rather pragmatic historically; b) the phenomena and phenomenology of transgression are usually understood through introspection which should be completed with historical reenactments reproducing, among other things, the logic of transgression genesis in terms of its necessity; c) it is impossible to get an in-depth comprehension of the nature of 'denial', 'doomness' and other important other-world-states without defining their particular genetic source or outcome which is understood in terms of ontology as being-in-the-world determining the reality of the world on the way of ontology constantly appealing to its sources and being expressed, first of all, in a form of emotional experience (the feelign of self, existence, identity). The research method used by the author relates to the analysis and historical reenactment of being as a category studied from the materialistic and genetic points of view. Transgressinos are viewed in terms of necessary acts of finding roots in life and drawing upon the world-being-ready-for-involvement. The drama of the world apepars to be an initial imputation or channel of transfer alowing to 'feel' the world on the other side of insuperable stimulus-response determinism. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author emphasizes the problems of being-in-the-world that are caused, in the first place, by limits of the natural state (reflex response) which cannot be overcome in any natural way. In this research the author demonstrates that overcoming is connected with the shock-terrifying. Thus, the problem of being-in-the-world cannot be 'solved' and eliminated but still remains important and includes 'being' in the status-of-transition. 
Politics and Society, 2016-4
Spektor D.M. - Cultural dimensions of sovereignty


Abstract: This article examines the question of origin and nature of sovereignty in the historical and culturological aspects. The common interpretations that connect power with the balance of interests (representativeness is its particular case) are complemented by the outlook upon authority, which originates from its initial functions. Those are justified by cultivating the specific state (pathos).  In this connection power is being defined through the two fundamental and at the same time contradictory tasks: initiation of the specific elevation (revival) that affects the elites, and regulation of activity of the rest of the community. The method of this research is predominantly based on the impartial pursuit of the fact, presented by anthropology and ethnology. On this path, a number of circumstances, in essence ignored by the political science (for example the “sacred nature” of power) attain new interpretation. The scientific novelty consists in the reconceptualization of the established ideas that define power as a organizer of “zero game”, which regulates collisions and the opposing interests of states, groups and individuals, or coordinator who pursues the shared benefits.
Philosophical Thought, 2016-4
Spektor D.M. - Eros: on the other side of singularity pp. 114-128


Abstract: The subject of this research is presented by a repeatedly mention, but still quite mysterious connection between Eros, death, and power. It is demonstrated that the specified realities could not be cognized based on the modern meanings and interpretations. The connection between death, Eros, and power includes a number of important historical metamorphoses, the essence of which in fact reconstructs this research. One of its initial points is the proclaimed by Foucault entrenchment of power in “biopolitics”.  Such reconstruction allows stating the reverse pace of the historical logic: domination of “biopolitics”, which equally substantiates the forms of power, Eros, and survival. Method of the research is associated with the analysis of the historical reconstruction of Eros, exogamy, and (symbolic) exchange. Its logical canvas is subordinated to the reconstructing succession of the intercommunity relations that are based predominantly on the two factors: aggression and its only antipode – captivity of wives. Referring to such descriptive sketches, the article underpins the ontology. The scientific novelty consists in proving the fact that collectivity in the eyes of community is the essence of the commonness of genders – male and female. The latters are not created by the nature not being a natural expression and continuation of gender; it’s the ontological predeterminations, from the relationship of which originates the commonness of human (being).
Litera, 2016-4
Spektor D.M. - Time and Text (Continuation of "Ways of Golem") pp. 93-107


Abstract: The subject of the research is represented by the reference- mimesis- story relationship previously traced based on the analysis of the text of P. Ricoeur's "Time and Narrative" and continued based on the material of the 2d volume. The study develops the idea of the narration time in its difference from chronological. "Compression" and "stretch" are given in connection with the modes of narrative time, in turn, binds to the archetypal ritual structures. The study focused objective review of mimesis adopted since Aristotle as the exclusive foundation of the narrative.The research method based analysis and reconstruction of the concepts of "mimesis and scheming" in the treatment "of the past and the future." With the chronological structure of the time compared his discursive markup.The scientific novelty of the research is to develop a narrative concept of time; its structural markup compared with the referent. Reconstruction of the last allowed to outline the ways of constructing the theory of time in the form of treatment of emotional and ecstatic (compression) and reflective (stretching) and reinterpret the traditional categories of the past and the future in the light of the concept.
World Politics, 2016-4
Spektor D.M. - Russophobia as a new antisemitism: from an “interim measure” to a measure of history pp. 20-33


Abstract: The research subject is the state of emergency concept – primarily in the interpretation of G. Agamben. This concept is considered in the two most significant aspects: in the political one (as it is interpreted by G. Agamben) and in the ontological (epistemological) one. The author ascertains the duality of the nature of the state of emergency, its ecstatic roots, traced in the logic of the slave-master relations and the ontological basis, the reconstruction of which is possible by means of a successive comparison of the notions of cognition and interrogation, investigation and research, condemnation and judgement, etc. The research methodology is based on the analysis and the reconstruction of the notions “investigation”, “procedure”, and “judicial proceedings” (substantiated in their genealogy by etymological closeness of the terms “history”, “truth” and “plaintiff”). The scientific novelty of the study consists in the disclosure of the genesis of the state of emergency from the early 20th century till the present days. The author demonstrates the continuity of the concept; proves that the role of “Jews” of the past century at present belongs to “Russians” and partly to “international terrorism”. At the same time, the general conditions of postmodernity leave a stamp on this role. 
Psychologist, 2016-3
Spektor D.M. - Motivation, subjectivity and temporal interpretation pp. 26-41


Abstract: The subject of the study is represented by the ratio of (treatment) motivation and "time" in its non-physical, psychological treatment. The study develops the idea of the need to move the psychology of non-critical borrowed from other regions of ideas about the nature of time (biographical, historical, social), and the development of the psychology of its own analytical views based non-biased analytics psychological substance (primarily, "motivation"). The study also focused objectives rethinking is closely associated with the "motivation" of psychological realities, in particular the "expediency" and "subject", "subjectivity" and "emotion".The research method based analysis and reconstruction of the concepts of "past", "future" and their treatment in the moment-now in its psychological interpretation.The scientific novelty of the research is to develop new ideas about the nature of time; those outlined previously in studies linking "unconscious" with a structural dispensation text (J. Lacan), and with the last imputation (text) own temporal structure. However, these intentions have not found a system fault in the nature of biographical time. The solution of this problem requires a new return to the "nature of time" coming from the revision of the nature of motivation (emotions). An attempt of this "information" and presents the text of the article.
Politics and Society, 2016-2
Spektor D.M. - Anatomy of power quaestio facti vs quaestio juris


Abstract: The subject of this research is associated with the criticism of the Giorgio Agamben’s book “Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Naked Life”.  The focal point of his study is the relation between “naked life” and “politics” reviewed from the historical, ontological, and juridical perspectives. The author insists that precisely this relation has formed the frameworks of the Western politics as a whole, and democracy as its part. Criticism is based on the uncertainty of the initial notions and the derived from such uncertainty weakness of conclusions, particularly the central core of the entire analytics – the notion of homo sacer and substantiated by it “exception”, through the prism of which, the reality of political life is being perceived. The attempts to limit the understanding of the circle of historical realities by examining their legal futures are justified in accordance with the methodological preferences of the author. However, such narrowness does not allow basing the legal realities upon the more reliable life foundation, which in many cases limit the realism of this research. As a result, the work of Giorgio Agamben demonstrates the shine and poverty of the “academic project”. Putting aside the quite significant factual errors, we should acknowledge the tenuity of the anthropological model, based on which the author gradually structures his concept. But limitations of “humanity” on one side, and of “body” (naked life) on the other, its political and sacral justification, does not allow to put the fairly stable gnoseological foundation under such justifications.
Philosophical Thought, 2016-2
Spektor D.M. - Being and subjectivity pp. 1-46


Abstract: The subject of this research is subjectivity: this quite uncertain on the topic and notion connotation is revealed with regards to its ontological status; for these purposes, subjectivity is being reduced to its origins, which include the conditions of initiation, possession, orgiastic festivities, etc. Within the logical field, subjectivity is correlated to “aspiration”, including modification of desire (also psychoanalytical) and “realization” (phenomenology). The modern developments of problematics of the “body” and its connection to the space and time are taken into account. The method of research is linked to the analysis and historical reconstruction of the notions of “body”, time, and Other; the “subject” is viewed in its internal substantiation, which acquires in history an adaptive status, but not originating out of it. Scientific novelty of the conducted research consists in the proof that genesis of subjectivity is justified by initial transformation of attraction to the motive (involvement). Motive (intention) is directed not by the object (stimulus), but its being (realistically-existing). Being is revealed as a game of transition of embodiment into the subject of unembodiment (in motivation).
Litera, 2016-2
Spektor D.M. - Writing and Time. Way of Golem pp. 71-83


Abstract: The subject of the study is represented by triple ratio referentsii- mimesisa- story, traceable on the text of P. Ricoeur's "time and the story." The study proved that chronological time is closely related to the body-space reference and co-compliant activities. "Story" in opposition to it (reference) other (non-chronological) time (other-world), the "collection-itself" in the subject position. This procedure is related to the re-reading of the text, including the re-viewing the incident arising from the formation of subjectivity-and-retrospective differentiation-occurring entities. The article made an attempt this reconstruction (the qualitative) time in its projection on the structure of the narrative-the story.The method of investigation is connected with the analysis and theoretical reconstruction of the concept of "mimesis" in the treatment of "soul" and "spirit". This ratio is assumed in the base of the temporal structure of the reconstruction.The scientific novelty of the research is to develop the concept of time-the story of language, events, plot, genre typology of characters and stories. With the "treatment" of subjectivity / entity mapped "conversion" to the original, word, seen in perspective "vanishing point" as a reference point "pro-of-knowledge", and the starting point of historical intelligence (humanitarian properties).
Philosophy and Culture, 2016-1
Spektor D.M. - Time: a game of sovereignty and death


Abstract: This article makes an attempt to cleanse the notion of time from the naturalistic associations, which across the centuries connect it with the natural cycles on one hand, and the familiar markers of sequence (before, now, after) on the other. The “perception” of time, in the interpretations of which all the way until today, dominate the methods on introspection, is subjected to the similar criticism. The focus of examination is the conditions of origin of time and its cultural functions, which are defined first and foremost by the task of institutionalization of “reality”. The article reviews “time” in its genesis; in addition to that, it subjects to reconstruction the “historicism”’; “reduction to foundations” is carried out based on the attraction of various anthropological material. Scientific novelty consists in the reframing of the formed ideas that interpret time as a natural given. Time and its institutionalizing realities are compared with their origin – a sovereign being on one hand, and various institutions of reality (fear of death, body, ephemera, etc.) on the other. As a result, time appears as the most universal form of sublimation of the self-preservation instinct and the axis of structuring of the “real”.
Urban Studies, 2016-1
Spektor D.M. - To the ontology of space and architectural shapes pp. 9-23


Abstract: This article criticizes the tendencies of interlinking ontology (of the XX century) predominantly with “time” and procedurality. The work demonstrates that outside the concept of boundary (form) the realization of being is impossible not only with regards to reality (history), but also towards its idea (concept). The essence takes its roots from the architecture of the continuum as the original instrument of transformation of unity of being into combination of spatial likenesses (bodies). The perception of continuum is reduced to the primal forms of co-being, which justifies the form of being of one or another origin and at the same time, the architecture of the form of realization. The method of research is associated with the apologia of “form” and “body” (form of the body), which were interlinked with space and time. The “body” in this case is being reconstructed, examined in regards to the “image” and geometric shape. The scientific novelty consists in endowing “space” with ontological significance. The “history of body” is connected with the history of space and time from both, the humanistic line of the genesis of game and art, as well as the natural science genesis of physical transferences.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-11
Spektor D.M. - Existence and Pathology


Abstract: In his article Spektor builds the relationship between the terms "norm" and "pathology". According to the author of the article, if "normal" existence is disconnected by time (existential), which is symptompatically defined as the "ecstasy of the future", abnormal existence is, in fact, falling into the source, pathos of the past (atavism) and initial state of obsession (when obsession is the point at which the "norm" and "deviation" triggered by "creative intuition"  cross; but through outlining the "horror" and life-towards-death, pathology of existential norm is revealed). It is shown either in the form of obsession (paranoia) reduction or in the form of initial (schizophrenic) disintegrations, pathology still should be viewed as the shear of the initial, its 'raw' nature, which is revealed not only as the loss of external (cultural) mechanisms but also destruction and reduction to non-established fragmentation (true out-of-structure Id). The method of research is based on the the analysis and historical reconstruction of the state of obsession as a primary historical 'norm' which eventually acquired the nature of "pathology". Scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author proves that psychiatric pathology reproduces the initial "transition" that was initially exposed to Id subjected to traumatic shock which, in its turn, caused frenzy and depersonalization, paranoid reactions and psychotic states serving as a frame of "obsession". Orientation at denying involuntary actions doesn't allow to reproduce traditional ways of socialization and therapy; at the same time, such symptoms of schizophrenia as regression and general degradation are, in fact, the reduction of psyche to Id as the initial self-denying complex but not the molecular essence of Id. 
Philosophical Thought, 2015-10
Spektor D.M. - M. Heidegger: time and sense pp. 1-53


Abstract: In article aspects of temporariness are considered through a prism of philosophy of Heidegger. The special attention is paid to the leading line of research, life real, unlike real vremenyashchy itself as initial temporariness. This message is taken as the fundamental and reliable; however the fenomenologizm which isn't able and not able to leave description limits is insufficient in respect of explanation of the reasons of distinction of real and (its) life, and interpretation of the last in the area of temporariness, and is supplemented with a historical and dialectic method.The method of research is connected with a consecutive reduction here - lives to its historical bases; the structural components revealed in its course (a community and isolation) are traced further in their projection to time and history.Scientific novelty of research consists in consecutive leading under ontology here - lives of realism of nationalization. "Here", under which the prototype of an individual (the isolated life) is brought, aspires to life (community), but also the last recreates in tendency; but also life holds "here" (individual) on the brink of falling, from time to time carrying out break of an enlightenment. This break of "present" is compared with its chronological disposition. Besides, "ordinary" as not original time also takes roots in life, corresponding to structure of an agon.
Culture and Art, 2015-6
Spektor D.M. - Towards Ontology of the Tragic Action


Abstract: In his article Spektor analyzes the historical and genetic aspects of the tragic action traced back from the times when the tradic action was first performed as part of rituals (in comparison to the comedy which has common historical sources with the tragedy). In addition, the author of the article compares the referencial subbase to developing views on the essence of the tragic action performing the functin of mimesis in narrative. Special attention is paid to the relationship between syntagma and paradigm in the tragedy as well as ontology of the tragic action due to its influence on the phenomenological and existential philosophy of the XXth century. The method of the research chosen by the author refers to a successive reduction of the tragic to its historical bases; the structural components of the tragedy revealed in the course of the research are studied further from the point of view of their genesis. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author establishes the structure of the tragic action that includes the initiating mystery play, dialogic agon and integral fiction. The author of the article demonstrates that the tragedy constructs the concept of death in ontology and ideology of reality (physical bodies) through describing the path to death (one's own death or death of the other). The absence of alternatives to death represents the irreversible presence. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-4
Spektor D.M. - Metaphysics of the Cult and the Culture of 'Homo Numinosum'


Abstract: "Humanity" doesn't descend from heavens with the Holy Spirit but comes through real animals (ancestors of the mankind) led by instincts. Humanity developed as a result of the need to release from total domination of reflex reactions, on the one hand, and opportunities predetermined by their phenotype, on the other hand.These were the real conditions of creation of the first historical form of culture – the cult. Involvement in cult actions transformed our ancestor into human, consciousness being one of his attributes. Reconstruction of the initial forms of cult is based on successive comparison of ritual practices with the sensuality genesis separating human from animal as a being with a completely different perception of the world and feelings. As a new form of experience, cult (of motives, values, and derived emotions) sets priorities for the relations above material communications (thus creating its own "virtuality") and is a result of the defensive instinct when man began to focus on community values (as the way to general survival) and was deprived of established mechanisms of behavior, and therefore had to be based on common reactions and community relations. 
Philosophy and Culture, 2015-3
Spektor D.M. - Evolution: the Attempt of a Positive Ontological Interpetation


Abstract: The drivers of human evolution are still one of the darkest points in the anthropogenesis theory. From the point of view of the representatives of positive science, human is a part of nature and therefore unconditionally obeys the laws of nature. The obvious axiom of philosophy is that human has a single essence. In his article Spektor raises the following question: what are the reasons why human has such an essence? Therefore, the research subject of the present article is a theoretical justification of the reasons of the unity of humankind. Noteworthy that such reasons can be found in actual conditions of the descent of man. The research methodology involves monism as the most general principle as well as methods of dialectical logic combined with the analysis or critics of references. The author shows that a sucessive scientific interpretation of the question about the unity of the mankind brings us to the following conclusion: human has to adjust to a very singular environment. This is the kind of environment that has a high level of the internal coherence so all the living creatures have to mutually adjust to one another. So human evolution is a type of specific universalization and constant competition inside their environmental niche. These are the external drivers of 'hominization'. The internal drivers include the initiation of the defensive insinct that have been going on for thousands of years. 
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-3
Spektor D.M. - Representation, understanding and judgment. On that party of tradition


Abstract: In article the diverse features of judgment distinguishing the last from understanding and representation are considered. Description outlines sense as a detection phenomenon for shown authenticity, contextual conditionality, germenevtichesky disclosure and inclusion in a field of personal and strong-willed interest. Nevertheless the phenomenological description doesn't disclose a source of division of the events into the phenomenon and its sense, carrying the last both to natural conditions of a yavlennost, and to those editions which are introduced in reality by "the symbolical power". The question of the sense nature in the offered edition of a phylogeny is transformed to a question of the nature of "primary sense" (pathos, a spiritualizing, dedication) addressed to a sovereignty (subject), the eternal object having other sovereignty and, as bodies of realization of external activity, own community. Existence of similar (universal) object believes a question of the nature of "secondary sense" in a foreshortening of the "simulation" transforming animal intensions (instincts) to the plane of their kindling, deepening and "fullnesses sense". The logic of the genesis studied causes need of logical first of all code conversion: the fundamental thesis of understanding – as process of correlation this as yet not recognized – and the identification recognized on the way, correlation with this (other: a subject, or process, anyway known), has to contain historically more primary task reflection of the unknown, the unprecedented, spontaneous improvised.
Culture and Art, 2015-3
Spektor D.M. - Knowledge of the myth and myths of knowledge (to poetics of a formation of myths).


Abstract: Interpretations of the myth, at all variety, are based rather narrow circle of anthropological ideas among which the model of "homo sapiens" predominates. The understanding of the myth is connected with it directly (rationalistic interpretation) or indirectly (the models based on structuralist and semantic approaches). In this article the treatment of the myth caused by the real circumstances of its origin and primary functions connected first of all not with a rational exposition of reality, but with initiation of the certain instance representing collective spirit is planned. The method of research is caused by criticism of widespread mythological concepts; in its course their bias and the apriorizm caused by the prevailing positivistic position is established. In article is shown that the dawn of human history is marked not by gradual accumulation of an intellectual resource, but as explosive refusal of a support on schemes and algorithms of action, the refusal which demanded absolutely specific providing, one of which elements the myth acts. In the substantial relation the myth inherits to the following functions of cultural formation: a) deduction of pathos and to its transfer to the vital world in the sounding word; b) initiations of readiness for collective and spontaneous reaction "suddenly" (to ecstatic experience), c) to rooting as a part of mentality of the instance of involvement reacting to an environment as a being (whole, the world) the certain typicalness subordinating the shown.
Philosophical Thought, 2015-3
Spektor D.M. - Ontogenesis. Lev Vygotsky's Doctrine in Terms of Ontology pp. 151-220


Abstract: Lev Vygotsky's ideas that made revolution in psychology set reference points and focus on the most essential understanding of ontogenesis. In the present article ontologic aspects of his position are considered, first of all, the beginnings, in particular, the "the magic stage" and its biological and cultural definitions. This magic given to communication with real circumstances of development opens the hidden roots of culture, allows to distinguish cultural development and socialization and to outline the mechanism of their interaction. The magic of the childhood is presented by the H+ function (the added intention); this is a certain regular (and partly regulated) arising force realizing intentions. The magic of infancy appears in the form of an ego > (the Other - the Intermediary) > a subject (the Other). Due to the conducted research further ontologic study of ideas of development in connection with the beginning of ontogenesis should be made; "the way through the other" has to be pulled integrally together with "the way through the Sign - Tool"; in transition from the Other as the Intermediary to the Other as the intermediary ideal, in transitions from the Other as a personification (a community of people) to the Other as a representation of subject communities (essence, being, sense), consists in research of logic of the "magic increments" put in the motivation basis, according to the author, new opportunities of understanding of ontogenesis.
Litera, 2015-3
Spektor D.M. - Mission of the comic pp. 143-224


Abstract: In article various aspects and forms of comic action are considered. Sources of comic ambivalence, mixture within the ancient comedy of cheerfulness and gloating are designated, comic and demonic began. Reveal including various forms of the comic: craziness, parody, satire, wit and humor. The nature of the comic is compared with the nature tragic, including in respect of their ontology. Their general sources — appeals to πάθη, and sources of their distinctions are established. The appeal to ontology allows to conclude a reference in a framework agona-oppositions of life unity and life game, concluded in transition from "reference" to "mystery", mimesis and a narrative in their ontological legitimacy and conditionality. The method of research is connected with a consecutive reduction comic to its historical bases; in its course sources and changes of a reference (competitive fight) are compared with their maintenance (evolution of the marriage unions). Internal overlapping of a reference is given to communication with overlapping of a reference and its attendant of game mimesis. Scientific novelty of research consists in establishment of mission comic, concluded in ontological pluralism, or the way of life including transitions between its childbirth. Life as exclusive and patrimonial resists to itself as the known integrity specified as concerning the game nature of transitions (between various childbirth of life), and aesthetic and art "unity" of a reference and mimesis narrative.
Culture and Art, 2015-1
Spektor D.M. -


Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-1
Spektor D.M. -


Philosophical Thought, 2014-9
Spektor D.M. - Deflecton of the Truth in the Meaning of Rationality Borders (On Overcoming Mechanicalism of Quantum A Priori) pp. 69-83


Abstract: Set of interpretations of intelligence protect it from possibility of reconsideration. Certainty of assumptions displaces the center to mechanisms in which the sense is changed for the validity. The last is alien to sense of understanding which the sense serves. In Kant's aprioristika mekhanitsizm ghosts are also covered. Sense and (on - with-) knowledge conduct continuous fight for the right of a primogeniture; but the arbitration of consciousness is limited to his belief in impossibility out of - and to - logical thought. Mystifications of rules are captured by ecstasy of the firm law which is eternal, constitutes life (in Kant interpretation – human) and embodies an absolute form of truth before leading under it the material contents. Overcoming of an aprioristika philosophy of life didn't lead to cardinal change of initial installations. Research traces their logic (rocking of logical dispositions) in the directions subconscious and the authorities. But results don't meet requirements of purity of a bespredposylochny outcome as still operta on clearings of Augean stables of consciousness and don't allow unconscious as the constituting life basis (again and again reviving an aprioristika). The denial of metaphysics leans on the next round of reconstruction to - conscious, immersed in the history environment (sacred madness). In renunciation from before - intellectualism of a reflektornost (aprioristik of "incentive reaction"), accentuation of spontaneous reaction, transcendental and esthetic owing to aiming at its razdelennost, in an institutionalization of Another (a substance prototype) the sense finds the first concreteness under which other community and a community of other is brought. Other (another) as a universal form of sensual synthesizable concreteness is also constituted by the world which reasons of a podsobnost and speeds of reactions will transform to the material.
Psychologist, 2014-5
Spektor D.M. - The Nature and Education adn the Culture of Play (On the Cultural Studies of Childhood) pp. 79-105


Abstract: As outline of research the relation of "nature", traditional for the subject "developments" (in this case the child's nature) and "cultures" acts (as to it the traditional and external improving beginning). Under "development" the new ontologic base based on unusual interpretation of a phenomenon of emotions is brought. The last on the basis of phylogenetic reconstruction are treated as certain "settings" (moods) allowing to subordinate spontaneous reaction of a community of its manifestations (to bring unity of motives under similar manifestations). The emotional reaction (distinguished ̣.î. from affective) takes shape of cultural reaction in game (in a phylogeny - within "sacred game"). In game, ̣.î." true spontaneity" (transcendence) is opposed to a community of reactions (transcendental and esthetic settings), playing including accents of "spontaneity" and "rules". Without having special respect for theories of reconciliation, the author sees known methodological potential in comparison the logician filo-and ontogenesis, identification of those "beginnings" which scoop the bases in "nature" (instincts), but instincts unusual (initiating spontaneous reactions), unusually used (provoking reactions collective) and unusually (randomly) initiated. The view of the nature of game is reconsidered in the light of the new anthropological model developed by the author. The accepted dichotomy "the nature - culture", traditionally prevailing over understanding, is replaced new within which the "nature" presented by instincts reflexive is opposed to "nature" of spontaneous reactions. In such communication "the nature – the culture" is opposed to a paradigm a paradigm "spontaneity (cultural conditions of its generation and support) – (natural and cultural) conditionality".
Philosophical Thought, 2014-3
Spektor D.M. - Otherness and Time (Contours of Trascendental Aesthetics) pp. 1-46


Abstract: Ideas of time are rather contradictory.Time isn't limited to time (eternally), doesn't depend on the person, his reason, perception, representations – opposite, them causes. And on the contrary.Time is caused by the person, his perception (thinking). The natural place of such position is presented by a form of perception, a sintezama of separate feelings (Kant). Also it is not the last dichotomy connected with time nature. Time allows subjects, including the person, to open the contents (the so-called principle of historicism); the history is the most valuable instrument of obstetric aid of truth. In time frame the seed will be transformed to the sprout, a trunk, escapes blossoming on spring and so forth. But shipped in a formation stream not truly (Platon). The person of subjects is also other than other living beings that can leave the temporary course, renounce boiling of passions and join invariable and eternal truth. As its bosom primary small piece of ice of eternity, an invariable divine eidos acts. Comparison enough obvious abstractions of a temporal row (time condition of discharge, social, physical and so forth abstractions) with its genesis (history) give a reason to judge orders which it is possible to call primary, and their subsequent changes, and created the occurring idea of time nature. The carried-out reconstruction shows that time in sources an essence first of all inobyty, before - standing.At the same time this abstraction of time doesn't act as time yet, showing pure game - with - death, a transcendental figure of transformation - revival-regeneration (initiation).Coming (eternity) finds temporary fullness in updating, in the relation with other (life), in a test event real (real test), moving apart borders in here and now stiffness presence of force (spirit of game improvisation).
Litera, 2013-4
Spektor D.M. - Historical Roots of Dramatic Poetry pp. 100-135


Abstract: In this article the treatment according to which scenic action in one way or another "displays" is analyzed deeply implanted in classical philosophy or "expresses" life, the tragedy and the comedy act as typical forms of such reflection — as well as typical forms of expressiveness which the limelight gives often to the banal vital phenomena – "condensing" them, rejecting routine, not typical and minor, and exposing most "essential" on the foreground.Overcoming of the general metafizichnost and spirit of Education induces to address to real historical roots of tragic action. Removal it from under exclusive aegis of a panlogizm allows to plan the real bases of poetics. As the main method thus acts the historical reconstruction in no small measure connected with search and the statement of "basis", in which real and historical conditions of an origin still directly visible. They, according to the author, are connected with initiation of a special condition of ecstasy (in a number of researches identified with a spiritualizing), releasing its testing from influence of the instincts which indissolubly binding existence with are (isolated) life - in - a body. Framework similar experience caused emergence of special (virtual) reality – as realities of possible interactions (opposite reality of coexistence of ranks of the separate isolated beings and sushchnost). Universality of human life forms such space of opportunities creating beings from the endured - the relations (for example, such subject, as a community – earlier in the nature not existing)
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