Psychology and Psychotechnics
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Publications of Chumakova Elizaveta Anatol'evna
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2021-1
Berezina T.N., Chumakova E.A. - The development of psychological models for predicting health conditions in retirement age pp. 1-18


Abstract: The goal of this research lies in the assessment of predictive validity of psychological markers of health and work capacity of the persons of retirement age, and its comparison with predictive value of medical markers. The survey involved 496 retirees (386 women, 110 men) assigned to the Moscow medical center for cardiology. The research is based on longitudinal case study with two cross-sections. The section included the assessment of personality and life path indicators, medical examinations, psychological and medical predictions of health conditions. The second section included medical examination, assessment of changes in health conditions and preservation of life. The conclusion is made that psychological prognosis is more accurate in predicting preservation of life, while medical – in preservation of health. Psychological markers correlating with health conditions of younger and older retirees (family status, parental status, object of care, absence of bad habits, high level of activity and goal commitment, sociability) were determined retrospectively. Based on that, the author develops the strategies for organization of life path, which makes preservation of life and health more feasible. For young retirees, this is the strategy for combining the care for loved ones with high level of activity and quitting alcohol consumption. For older retirees, this is the strategy for combining care for loved ones with having a family and high level of activity. It is established that psychological markers of health have predictive value and can be recommended for experimental validation of their efficiency as an independent variable.
Psychologist, 2019-3
Berezina T.N., Chumakova E.A. - Psychological Risks of Socially Significant Diseases at Retirement Age pp. 32-47


Abstract: The aim of the research is to analyze psychological and behavioral risks of cardiovascular diseases at retirement age and to compare these risks to other risks of socially significant diseases. The research involved retired men and women. The subject of the research is personality traits of retired people that contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, endocrinological and respiratory diseases. The authors examine the influence of such factors as addicitions (alcoholism, smoking, compulsive eating), typological behavioral features (A, B and D types of behavior), emotional sphere and communication peculiarities. The research involved 525 pensioners who came to the city out-patient clinic, 496 of them had a record of a significantly important disease. The researchers have applied such methods as questionnairies, self-assessment and medical analysis data. To process data, the authors have used one-factor analysis of variance and regression analysis. The results of the research demonstrate that many psychological risks are common for different socially important diseases (in particular, bad habits and aggression) and career advancement is the general cause. However, there are personality traits that influence the development of a particular disease, for example, creative hobby and attribution to the Human - Sign kind of profession reduce the risk of heart diseases. Attribution to the Human - Nature kind of profession decreases the risk of diabetes, and intellectual hobbies reduce the risk of lung diseases. Conclusions: it is necessary to take into account personality traits and personality type when assessing the risk of diseases. 
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2019-3
Berezina T.N., Chumakova E.A. - Individual prerequisites for the development of cardiovascular diseases in senior age pp. 45-58


Abstract: The goal of this research is the peculiarities of personal organization of the way of living affecting the development of cardiovascular diseases among various types of personality in senior age. The research method consists of the diagnostic of personality traits, questionnaire on the way of living, analysis of medical documents, expert assessment. The dependent variable includes: personality traits, such as aggressiveness, activeness, outgoingness, optimism, thoughtfulness; and peculiarities of the way of living, such as career, hobby, bad habits, etc. The independent variable includes the level of cardiovascular pathology. The additional variables include professional types, gender and age. Statistical method in form of dispersion analysis ANOVA was used in the course of research. The results demonstrate that the risk of development of cardiovascular diseases among senior citizens is increased by aggressiveness, professional activity in the sphere “man-technology”, psychological addictions (alcohol consumption, smoking, compulsive eating); while reduced by optimism and presence of hobbies. Among the senior citizens of work and technical specializations, the risk of cardiovascular diseases was also enhanced by outgoingness, activeness and determination, career growth; while reduced by the presence of hobbies. Among the senior population of human-oriented professions, the risk was reduced by the presence of sport hobby. Among office employees, the risk was reduced by professional activity and career growth, while increased by other types of activity; social interactions are also considered as favorable. The conclusion is made that alongside the general factors, there are individual prerequisites for the emergence of cardiovascular diseases depending on professional type of a person. Validation of the acquired results require additional research.  
Psychologist, 2018-6
Berezina T.N., Chumakova E.A. - Personal Types of Retired People with Cardiovascular Diseases pp. 41-48


Abstract: The subject of the research is the distribution of psycho-types of patients with cardiovascular diseases. The object of the research are individuals of retirement age. The research involved 100 people who have been registered in the city clinic for cardiac disease. The comparison group consists of individuals with cancer. The vegetative-behavioral, temperamental and emotional personality types of pensioners were studied. The author pays special attention to the distribution of patients according to the types of the emotional sphere of unconscious and self-estimated levels. Diagnostics of personality types are carried out with the help of the following tests: Strelau, Rusalov as well as original questionnaires. To assess the reliability of differences between distributions, the statistical χ2 criterion is used. It is shown that there are differences in distribution by type for the temperamental level, and at the trend level for the vegetative behavioral. It is suggested to consider personal types as an additional variable; the belonging of a person to a certain personality type under certain conditions will increase the risk of the disease, while at others decrease. The direction for further research has been determined: identification of the risk conditions for cardiac diseases and conditions for the restoration of health for each personality type. 
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