Psychology and Psychotechnics
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Publications of Artemeva Olga Arkadjevna
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2021-3
Artemeva O.A., Karapetova A.V. - Research groups as the foundation for psychological school of V. M. Bekhterev pp. 74-89

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2021.3.36169

Abstract: In the context of studying work organization of the leading teams of Russian psychologists, the article provides characteristics of the research groups that worked under the direction of V. M. Bekhterev in the field of psychology. For outlining the institutional framework, composition and results of the activity of such groups, the author carries out the biographical analysis along with the analysis of the products of scientific activity of the scholar and members of his team. It is demonstrated that the psychological direction of the scientific school of V. M. Bekhterev was formed out of the groups led by him at the premises of Kazan State University, Saint Petersburg Military Medical Academy, Neuropsychiatric Institute, and Institute for Brain Research. The novelty of the implemented approach consists in reconstruction of the establishment of reflexology as an independent psychological direction of scientific activity of V. M. Bekhterev from the perspective of socio-psychological theory of the collective. The individual “branches” of research of the team members were a distinct feature of the organization of collective work, which ensured the fulfillment of creative potential of each scholar and contribution to the development of the collective subject of research. The author also notes the united role of the leader. Throughout 40 years, V. M. Bekhterev united dozens of talented researchers. A crucial characteristic of the psychological “scientific school-research group” represented by a number of research teams was the experimental, practical and socially oriented research program for human study. The author indicates the priority of the scientific school of V. M. Bekhterev in the development and implementation of the objective and comprehensive approach towards studying the psychological phenomena. Based on the described peculiarities of organizing scientific activity, the established research base and of psychological personnel determined the formation of the Leningrad School of Soviet Psychology not only in the works of V. N. Myasishchev, N. M. Shchelovanov, A. V. Yarmolenko, M. Y. Basov, B. G. Ananyev, but also many other Russian psychologists.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2020-4
Artemeva O.A., Sinyova O.V. - In pursuit of the research group of L. S. Vygotsky pp. 89-102

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2020.4.34639

Abstract: Despite the fact that L. S. Vygotsky is a prominent figure in the history of Russian psychology due to the unique contribution to the development of scientific thought and organization of work of the new scientific center, the research group under his authority becomes the subject of a separate research for the first time. This article discusses the results of biographical analysis based on the historical-psychological sources, published testimonies of his contemporaries, such as memoirs, conversations and interviews, scientific autobiographies, transcripts of speeches, biographical articles, and published archival materials. The novelty of the implemented by the author research approach consists in reference to the research activity of L. S. Vygotsky and his scientific school from the perspective of theory of the collective. It is determined that due to the work in different institutions and different goals of research activity, the group of scholars under the authority of L. S. Vygotsky cannot be defined as a collective. The leader of Soviet psychology and defectology was a head of several interrelated research groups: since 1924 at the premises of the Institute of Experimental Psychology, since 1929 – the Experimental Institute of Defectology and the Academy of Communist Education named after N. K. Krupskaya, since 1932 – the All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine. In order to manage the effective research work of the groups, L. S. Vygotsky applied his creative, pedagogical and organizational skills. The scholar implemented a democratic management approach based on the uniformity of administration, cognition, and communication. L. S. Vygotsky’s scientific school was united by a progressive experimental and practice-oriented research program, sensitive to the public needs in building the theory and system of psychological assistance in the USSR.
Psychologist, 2018-5
Artemeva O.A. - The Shadow of Isolationalism in Russian Psychology of the First Half of the XXth Century: Social and Methodological Concepts pp. 14-24

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.5.27221

Abstract: The article is devoted to isolationalism as the issue of Russian and Soviet psychology. Artemyeva gives an overview of the main theoretical approaches to solving the issue in Russian and Western psychology. She offers her own socio-psychological approach that implies the analysis of the regulators of the psychological research in relation to the social environment of the science development. The subject of the research is the social and methodological concepts of Russian psychologists in the first half of the XXth century. The main research method used by the author is the historical reconstruction of the psychology development. The qualitative analysis involves official Soviet documents, biographical, bibliographical and archival data about the activity of the leading Russian psychologists. Based on her concept of the socio-psychological determinants of the psychology development, the author defines peculiarities of socialization and academic skills development as the main mechanisms that form the basis of the social and methodological concepts of Russian pre-revolutionary and Soviet psychologists. Artemyeva discovers the causes and patterns of isolationalism concepts in terms of the Russian psychology development. As a result of her research, she concludes that the isolationalism concept was not immanent for Russian psychology but imposed by the country's party leadership. Being an inefficient socio-psychologist phenomenon, it still predetermined the development of the positive attitude to Marx' approach and practice-oriented organisation of objective psychological research activity.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2018-3
Artemeva O.A., Sinyova O.V. - International pp. 39-48

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2018.3.26312

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of internationalism and isolationism of the domestic psychology of the first half of the XX century. The object of the study is the international trends in the development of domestic practice-oriented psychology, and the subject is international scientific communication as a condition for the development of the main scientific and practical trends in the domestic psychology of the period studied. An original approach to solving the problem is proposed in the context of the idea of a self-developing collective subject of scientific knowledge involved in the system of international scientific communication. The method of historical and psychological reconstruction is being implemented. The results of the analysis of data on international cooperation in the course of the organization of scientific and practical trends, as well as on official and informal contacts of the leading representatives of Soviet pedology, psychotechnology and psychoanalysis with foreign scientists are presented. The novelty of the study consists in revealing the specifics and role of the general social and scientific and social conditions in the implementation of the inter-ethnic scientific communication of domestic psychologists: the significance of not only social need is determined (in increasing labor productivity, educating a new person, theoretical and ideological justification of social transformations, recognition and strengthening of political positions of the Soviet state abroad), but also scientific policy in relation to the scientific and practical trends of psychology ii. Conclusions are drawn about the close relationship of international scientific communication, Soviet science policy and the processes of institutionalization of domestic scientific and practical trends in the 1920s. 
Psychologist, 2017-6
Artemeva O.A., Sinyova O.V. - Social Determination of Practical Psychological Currents Development in Russia in the First Half of the XX Century: Results of the Research pp. 11-20

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2017.6.21612

Abstract: The authors of the present research defines the problem of social determination of the historical development of Russian practical psychology. Based on the material of the history of main currents of Russian practical psychology's development in the first half of the XX century the author proposes the historical-scientific solution of the aforesaid problem. The authors also give a brief description of the main modern approaches to defining conditions, prerequisites, factors and results of the social determination of the pedagogical, psychoanalytical and psychotechnical movements of the 1920's - early 1930's. The authors present the results of the empirical research of what has determined the development and crisis of those movements in the first half of the XXth century using such methods of historical and psychological research as the analysis of research findings, biographical and bibliographical analysis, historical and psychological reconstruction and development of the classification of historical stages. The authors describe the main social conditions for developing research and practical movements: 1) Soviet science policy; 2) public demand for practice-oriented researches in industrial, ideological, social and administrative spheres. For the first time in he academic literature the authors describe the main mechanism of the social determination of the development of research and practical movements of the Soviet psychology, institutionalization. The authors define specific features of the Soviet research policy towards practical psychology, its ambivalent nature and role for de-institutionalization processes (elimination of research centers, specific print media, etc.). The authors also offer their own classification of stages of research and practical movements in the Russian psychology of the first half of the XXth century taking into account the social environment.  
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2015-6
Artemeva O.A., Kurbatova M. - Monotheism from the Standpoint of Psychoanalysis

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2015.6.14905

Abstract: This article gives insight into the fundamentals of the psychoanalytical approach to the image of God in monotheism. These fundamental concepts provide anthropological and humanistic intepretation of the image of God. According to S. Freud and C. G. Jung, in Judaism and Christianity the image of God, on the one hand, has the features of human personality and responsibility of a parent, and on the other hand, presents the ideal of human development that involves integration of all personality substances into one system. In other words, the idea and the image of God is either deduced from personal experience/experience of a group of people or viewed as a mean of personal development. Despite the fact that elimination of the sacral meaning of the image of God simplifies the phenomenon under research, the psychological feature and potential of the image of God are very important for the theory and practice of psychoanalytic assistance to a neurotic personality of our time. In their research the authors analyze fundamental works such as Freud's Totem and Taboo, The Future of an Illusion, Moses and Monotheism, Jung's Answer to Job, Psychology and Religion and others. The researchers describe the views of these psychologists on the psychological roots and the meaning of religion either as a mental construct that defends man from the traumatic influence of the reality or representation of collective unconscious that encourages individuation. Consequently, the condition that allows to overcome neurosis is viewed as the denial of religion in one case and appealing to the religious experience as the source of life, meaning and beauty, on the other hand. 
Psychologist, 2014-2
Artemeva O.A. - Soviet Psychotechnics: Social Biography of the Research and Practice Movement pp. 1-23

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.2.12015

Abstract: The history of domestic psychology of the 1920-1930th represents rare naukovedchesky material. At this time under the influence of unique social conditions growth and elimination of a number of scientific and practical currents – psychoanalysis, pedology, psychoequipment was observed. The appeal to history of development of each of these currents allows to open essential regularities of social determination of science. In the represented work on the basis of the analysis historical and scientific, including archival, materials the social biography of the Soviet psychoequipment is reconstructed. Tragic destinies of her leaders I.N. Shpilreyn and S.G. Gellerstein are represented. Stages of the social biography of a psychotechnical current as subject of scientific activity are allocated. The characteristic of social conditions of its formation and elimination in the Soviet Russia is given. As result of social determination of development of a current change of methodological installations of the Soviet psychotechnicians is traced. At reconstruction of "the social biography" of the Soviet psychoequipment the main publications and private papers of her scientific leaders, results of historical and psychological researches and official documents regulating activity of the Soviet psychotechnicians in 1920-1930 were analyzed. The carried-out work allowed to draw a conclusion on dependence of development of a scientific and practical current on such social conditions, as economic, ideological and political. The special attention is paid to ambivalent nature of influence of the Soviet scientific policy: on the one hand, repressions concerning experts scientists led to suppression of a research initiative and weakening of scientific and technical capacity of the country, with another – the Soviet scientific policy promoted merger of scientific community on the basis of the general methodological principles.
Psychologist, 2013-3
Artemeva O.A., . - Theoretical Basis for Studying the Relation Between Applied and Practical Psychology pp. 249-270

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2013.3.599

Abstract: The authors of the article define the problem of the relation between fundamental, applied and practical branches of psychology. Based on the analysis of V.A. Koltsova, T.D. Martsinkovskaya, O.G. Noskova, T. Leahy, R. Smith and other Russian and foreign historians, the authors provide the overview of the history of formation and development of applied and practical trends in psychology, especially pedology and psychotechnics. For the analysis of the historical-scientific and methodological patterns, the authors use the dynamic model of the relationship between theoretical psychology and social practice through the development of applied psychology developed by L.S. Vygotsky. More recent periods of relations between Russian fundamental psychology and psychological practice are viewed based on the conceptual grounds offered by A.L. Zhuravlev, D.V. Ushakov, A.G. Liders and I.N. Karitsky. The opportunities to distinguish applied and practical branches of psychology in the practical activity of psychologists are revealed so is the concept of role-playing ring proposed by Y.M. Zhukov. As a result, the structure of the relationship between subject and object of psychological activity is determined as an important base of classification of these branches. Historical analysis of the development of practical and applied branches of psychology in the first half of the XX century allows us to formulate a hypothesis about the singleness of the basic patterns of their development.
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2013-2
Artemeva O.A., . -

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0722.2013.2.7287

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2011-5
Artemeva O.A. -
Abstract:
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