Psychologist
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue ¹ 03/2021
Contents of Issue ¹ 03/2021
Personal motivation and spirituality
Amel'chenko A.A., Vlasova Y.A. - Peculiarities of development of empathy and reflection of students engaged in visual art pp. 1-14

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2021.3.35897

Abstract: The goal of this research is to determine the peculiarities of development of empathy and reflection of students engaged in visual art. The article employs the following methodology: “Diagnostics of the level of empathy” of V. V. Boyko,  “Diagnostics of reflection” of A. V. Karpov, questionnaire of D. A. Leontiev, E. M. Laptev, E. N. Osin A. Z. Salikhov “Differential type of reflection”, the author’s original questionnaire that contains questions on the pursuit of creative activity. The research is based on the method of statistical analysis of frequency distribution tables; one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov criterion; statistical analysis of two-dimensional contingency tables; univariate dispersion analysis . The survey involved the first, second, third and fourth year university students majoring in different disciplines. It is established that the level of development of empathy and reflexivity, as well as such types of reflection as systemic reflection, quasi-reflection and introspection among students engaged in visual art is higher than that among students of other faculties (with the exception of psychology students). The novelty of this work is substantiated by the empirical data on psychological nuances of the students engaged in visual art. The results can be useful in psychotherapy and educational practices. The conclusion is made that creative activity may contribute to understanding other people's emotions and the reasons behind own feelings. It is also noted that persons with vivid empathic and reflexive traits can pursue visual art.
Modeling the unconscious
Mordas E.S., Kuz'micheva A.G. - Menopause as a stage of female development: psychoanalytic perspective pp. 15-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2021.3.35096

Abstract: The object of this research is the psychoanalytic concepts of female development. The subject of this research is the phenomenon of the climacteric period in female development. The article analyzes and summarizes the psychoanalytic ideas on the development of women during menopause.1. Climacteric period – the crisis period (G. Bibring);2. Menopause as a trauma, narcissistic insult, backward development of libido, regression (H. Deutsch)3. Menopause as a narcissistic rage (R. Lax);4. Same as in puberty period, body is the focus of attention during menopause; climacteric period as part of femininity and emotions (D. Pines);5. Menopause as a punishment (M. Klein).The author also include the examples from personal research practice. The novelty of this work consists in the summary of psychoanalytic ideas on the female development during climacteric period; as well as in elucidation of the phenomenon of menopausal complex. The menopausal complex implies: 1. Menopause as a traumatic event, accompanied by the emotions of narcissistic rage; aggression as a protection mechanism, resemblance of the aging process and its irreversibility; 2. Regression and re-actualization of castration emotions and narcissistic wounds, experience of inferiority and inability to control your body; 3. Experiencing the loss and mourning over the reproductive abilities and femininity; 4. Reaching menopause is likely in same age as mother; 5. Menopausal complex is accompanied by the fear of aging (or future), fear of being left and loneliness.
Clinical psychology
Tsvetkova O.A., Volkova O.V. - On the basic needs in health psychology pp. 34-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2021.3.35874

Abstract: Health psychology is a branch of clinical psychology, which deals with human health considering physical, mental, social and spiritual aspects, i.e. in the context of biopsychosocial unity. Modern practice indicated that the representation on a disorder does not automatically form an “inner picture of health”. Fulfilling the task of psychological support of a person towards health and well-being required studying the integral phenomenon of health along with the factors that shape the image of a disorder or image of health. The initial aspect of any activity is the needful-motivational personality sphere. Different interpretations of the concept of basic needs of a person entail ambiguity of its use in the the practical work of a psychologist. The goal of this article is to examine the approaches towards outlining the basic needs in the context of health psychology. The author highlights three approaches towards determining the basic needs: as vital or biological needs; as needs underlying the higher needs; and ultimately, as the primary and essential for mental development and personality formation. Such perception allows formulating various approaches towards psychological correction of the consequences of frustration of basic needs. In conclusion, the author present a systematization of approaches towards consideration of the basic needs of a person, structurization of representation on the basic needs as essential and impacting the entire course and process of personality formation, which is particularly evident in the distortions of personality development in terms of frustration of the basic needs.
Developmental psychology
Savinkov S.N., Koval' N.A. - The problem of development of the psychological model of professional and personal reliability of the employee of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation pp. 46-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2021.3.34821

Abstract: The modern period of social development is characterized by the active establishment of new psychological, philosophical and socioeconomic knowledge, with a significant increase in the performance and reliability of a specialist, namely in the conditions of multitasking. Therefore, besides the professional competencies, personality traits are also of major importance. In carrying out their professional activity, the employees of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation often face the challenges related to personal responsibility, morals and ethics, as well as specific perception of professional and personal reliability. The article provides the results of theoretical analysis aimed at determination of the grounds for creating a psychological model for the development of professional and personal reliability of the employees of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation. The authors analyze the psychological, pedagogical, engineering, sociological; and legal research dedicated to reliability; reveal the key structural components of psychological model of the development of reliability of the staff members; outline the prospects for further research on the topic .The development of personal and professional reliability is a relevant problem of modern psychology and requires comprehensive scientific examination, same as the problem of creating a psychological model for the development of personal and professional reliability of the employees of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation.
Socionics up close
Kovalenko R.K., Zvonareva N.A. - Study of interrelation between the socionic type and the “Big Five” personality traits pp. 62-88

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2021.3.35353

Abstract: The subject of this research is the constructive validity of the provisions and diagnostic tools used in socionics. Socionics is viewed as a typological concept within the framework of cognitive psychology, which describes a type of information metabolism of a person based on the modeling method. The statistical verification of separate provisions of the socionic model is a relevant topic due to the fact that the socionic model is widely used in career orientation, team-building, conflict settlement, marketing and other spheres. The article provides the research results of the primary and secondary factors of the five-factor personality traits questionnaire the “Big Five” with the socionic characteristics. The article employs the method of determining a socionic type, a five-factor personality traits questionnaire, statistical comparison of the two groups based on the Mann-Whitney criterion, and calculation of the point-biserial correlation coefficient. The scientific novelty of lies in acquisition of the statistically important results that prove correlation between all secondary and twenty four primary factors with the socionic characteristics: “extraversion – introversion”, “logic – ethics”, “static – dynamics”, “assertiveness – inadvertence”, “irrationality – rationality” and “questimality – declarativeness”. Correlations between the “Big Five” personality traits with socionic characteristics correspond with the correlations within the “Big Five”. A conclusion is made on the prospects of research on the constructive validity of socionic methods, which would allow using the socionic model for a more extensive description of human capabilities.
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