Psychologist - rubric Clinical psychology
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Rubric "Clinical psychology"
Clinical psychology
Poddubnaya T.V. - Particularities of the Body Image Boundaries And Interpersonal Relationships (The Case Study of Patients Suffering from Allergic Skin Diseases) pp. 1-15


Abstract: The article presents the results of a comparative study of the features of the boundaries of body image demonstrated by healthy individuals and individuals suffering from allergic skin diseases. The subject of the research is the particularities of the boundaries of body image and interpersonal relationships of patients suffering from allergic skin diseases compared to healthy persons. The object of the research is the peculiarities of the borders of body image. The objective is to investigate the pattern of interaction of various parameters defining characteristics of the borders of body image demonstrated by patients suffering from allergic skin diseases. Research methods included interview consisting of 5 sections (analysis of the parent-child interaction, tactile ontogenesis, and perception of interpersonal relations); drawing tests such as "draw a human figure" by C. Machover, "body shape" by D. Beskova, "Sack's Sentence Competion Test"; questionnaires such as diagnostics of interpersonal relationships by T. Leary (adapted by L. Sobchik and interpreted by Yu. Kortneva), the test of relationship profile by R. Borstein (adapted by O. Makushina). The statistical analysis allowed to identify the leading markers on the basis of which it is permissible to detect the presence of distortion in the boundaries of one's body image. The obtained results can be used in the development of a general psychological model of the boundaries of body image as well as clinical practice of psychologists and psychotherapists.
Obukhovskaya V.B., Meshcheryakova E.I. - Resourceful and Deficiency Features of the Internal Picture of the Disease Typical for Patients with Neurological Pathology in Terms of Psychological Well-Being pp. 1-13


Abstract: The subject of the research is the resourceful and deficiency features of the internal picture of the disease in terms of psychological well-being (attitude to the disease, manifestations of anxiety and depression, basic strategies of cognitive regulation, quality of life, basic beliefs, psychological well-being, resilience) typical for patients, in particular, patients, with Parkinson's disease ( G20), multiple sclerosis (G35), spinal osteochondrosis (M42), stroke consequences (I67), dizziness and instability (R42). The rationale of the research is determined by the increase in the frequency and severity of neurological pathology. Thus, the resourceful and deficient features of the internal picture of the disease in terms of psychological security can serve as targets of psychological interventions for specific groups of patients with neurological pathology. In their research the authors have used the following tests and methods: anamnestic survey, Attitude to Disease Inventory, Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Ideas about the Disease Questionnaire, SF-36 Health Survey, World Assumptions Scale, Psychological Well-Being Scale, Viabiilty Test, and methods of mathematical statistics. It was determined that all groups of patients with neurological pathology have experienced the lack of physical abilities during physical exercise as well as the lack of independence during attempts to make independent decisions. Despite the active avoidance of thoughts about the disease and consequences, anosognosia helps patients to concentrate on the positive aspects of life which leads to adaptation to the situation of the disease. Indifference to fate and results of treatment has negative consequences in terms of successful predictions of interventions. For each group of patients, resourceful and deficiency characteristics are identified that are most significant for the selection of targets for psychological interventions.
Ulianich A.L., Agarkova L.A., Leshchinskaya S.B., Naku E.A. - Study of Characteristics of Internal Picture of Pregnancy among Women with Physical Complications as Factors Promoting and Preventing Preservation of Healthy Pregnancy pp. 1-15


Abstract: The subject of the study is the characteristics of the internal picture of pregnancy among women with physical complications as factors promoting and preventing the preservation of healthy pregnancy. The study aims to analyze the characteristics of the internal picture of pregnancy among women of three nosological groups with a physically complicated pregnancy to determine in the following the factors promoting and preventing the preservation of healthy pregnancy. The aims of the study are the search and description of general and specific characteristics of the internal picture of pregnancy and identification of factors promoting and preventing the preservation of healthy pregnancy. Were used such methods as the Beck Depression Inventory, test for the self-assessment of the emotional state by H. Eysenck, the questionnaire of reproductive motives 'My pregnancy', semantic differential, and "SF-36 Health Status Survey". It is established that common characteristics to all groups of women are: on an emotional level - optimal-level of anxiety, on a conative level - the need to see in pregnancy and in the child a continuation of conjugal love, on a cognitive level - positive attitude to themselves, a high value of the pregnancy and the child, on a level of body experience - the feeling of limitations in the performance of the physical activity. Specific characteristics among women with in vitro fertilization - the presence of depressive moods associated with pregnancy, the motive of preserving pregnancy for the sake of social status, restrictions in physical activity; among women with human immunodeficiency virus - super-value of pregnancy and the child, the attitude to pregnancy as a new stage of life, allowing to get away from loneliness, to become better, on a level of body experience - the rise of vital energy, high activity in the performance of physical activity. The obtained results can be used in maternity clinics, Reproductive Technology centers, Centers for the Prevention and Control of AIDS.
Tudupova T.T., Batueva N.G., Parfent'eva T.A. - Child-Parent Relationship and Negative Emotional States as the Factors of Suicidal Behavior of Teenagers pp. 32-40


Abstract: The subject of the research is the child-parent relationships and negative emotional states of adolescents, in particular, their effect on suicidal risks. The authors consider in detail such aspects of the topic as family dysfunctions and anxiety, hopelessness and depression. The research involved teenagers (average age was 15 years). Anxiety, depression, and hopelessness combined with family dysfunctions are psychological risk factors and an internal irritant to induce suicidal behavior. The growth of both suicidal attempts and completed suicides among children and adolescents requires research in the theoretical and applied aspects. The following tests were used: “Child-parent relationship of adolescents” by O.A. Karabanova and P.V. Troyanovskaya, “The Anxiety Scale” by A. Beck, “The Hopelessness Scale” by A. Beck, and “The Scale of Depression” by A. Beck as well as methods of mathematical statistics. It is shown that suicidal risk is a complex multidimensional phenomenon,which to a certain extent is associated with such psychological factors as the emotional sphere of the adolescent's personality, negative emotional states, specifics of their relationships with the parents. The relation beteen the child-parent relationship and his or her parents and negative emotional states in adolescents has been determined. The influence of family dysfunctions on suicidal risks has been revealed which is reflected in the high level of anxiety, depression and hopelessness detected in adolescents.
Penyavskaya A., Meshcheryakova E.I., Larionova A.V. - Subjective Attitude to the Disease of Schizophrenic Patients on Compulsory Treatment pp. 38-48


Abstract: The subject of the study is a subjective attitude to the disease of schizophrenic patients on compulsory treatment who committed a socially dangerous act. The attitude to the disease is examined through its components - emotional, motivational-behavioral, and cognitive ones. At the center of the study is the problem of effective rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients on compulsory treatment in a specialized psychiatric institution. The work aims to study the peculiarities of subjective attitude to the disease of schizophrenic patients under the conditions of compulsory treatment. Identification of the features of the attitude to the disease is carried out through the solution of research tasks on the analysis of cognitive, motivational, behavioral, emotional components of the attitude to the disease.The research methods are a hermeneutic method, including the study of medical histories of the subjects, a conversation with the use of a structured interview developed by the author according to the content of the structural components of the attitude to the disease. Data processing was performed using cluster analysis and association analysis by Pearson's chi-squared test criterion in the STATISTICA 12.0 program. As a result of the empirical study, the content of the components of the attitude to the disease of schizophrenic patients with a criminal history was revealed. The interrelations of structural components of the attitude to the disease, which allowed determining its typology, are revealed. There are two types: 'Denial of the disease' and 'Awareness of the disease'. It is concluded that it is necessary to take into account the data obtained in the process of development and verification of the effectiveness of psychological support for schizophrenic patients on compulsory treatment.
Yusupov P.R., Mardasova T.A. - Penitentiary Stress Experienced by Individuals with a Different Number of Convictions Held in a Temporary Detention Center pp. 45-53


Abstract: The article presents the results of a study of penitentiary personality stress. Penitentiary stress is characterized by negative changes in the emotional state, self-perception, growth of depressive reactions and decrease in adaptive capacity. The relationship between prison isolation and the loss of the ability to meet the actual needs of the individual is examined. The detention and stay in places of detention is a serious stress for the individual, associated with various kinds of deprivations, especially social deprivation. Staying in penitentiary institutions can have a pronounced negative psychophysical impact on the individual, which may be related to the monotony of a prisoner's life, with violation of space-time standards of existence, imbalance of sleep-wake rhythms, and limited access to information. Penitentiary isolation provokes a lot of negative changes in the life of the person: they experience anxiety, fear, feelings of hopelessness, helplessness and constant tension. The purpose of the study is to identify peculiarities of penitentiary stress: significant differences in the emotional state and self-perception of persons with different numbers of convictions held in a temporary detention facility. The subject of the study is the differences in the emotional state and self-perception of persons with different numbers of convictions held in a temporary detention facility. The research methodology includes emotional motivation concept (by V. Viliunas), cognitive theory of psychological stress (by R. Lazarus) and concepts of penitentiary stress (by Ermasov, Chirkov, Debolsky, etc.). The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author offers an integral concept of penitentiary stress and choose techniques that allow to reveal the main indicators of psychological stress in isolation as well as combination of mathematical and statistical research criteria. The main findings of the study are the following. The author has revealed significant differences in the emotional state, self-perception of persons with different number of convictions held in a temporary detention center. The persons who first got into the temporary detention center are marked by "oppressed state of health", reduced "activity", mainly "negative mood", experience of helplessness and a high level of depression.
Kadyrov R.V., Kapustina T.V., Gorokhova Y.O. - Attitude to Life and Future Demonstrated by Children and Teenagers Suffering from Onco-Hematological Diseases pp. 46-55


Abstract: The matter under research is attitude to life and future demonstrated by children suffering from onco-hematological diseases, serious chronic illness that changes life views and attitudes. The results of the research are of great importance for understanding the teenager age when basic beliefs, values and world views, attitudes to life and future develop which creates the basis for personality identification and influences future life-important choices of young men and women. For the empirical research the authors have used such methods as tests, questionnaires and projective method. Statistical data processing was performed using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test and Fisher test. The scientific novelty of the research is obvious because the majority of researches involve adults or explain psychological peculiarities of rehabilitation of such patients. The results of the research demonstrate that younger school children with onco-hematological diseases have a better idea of their life goals wile their attitude to past life events is more negative and full of anxiety. Teenagers with ongo-hematological diseases have a life attitude that is based on their personal life experience. Their attitude to future has little sence, no clear goals and full of anxiety and negative emotions. Their priority life values are spiritual values as well as communication and acceptance from others. 
Frolova I.I., Kaigorodova N.Z., Kashirskii D.V. - Subjectiveness Features of Teenagers Abusing Psychoactive Substances pp. 59-67


Abstract: The present article presents the results of studying subjectiveness features of teenagers curing from alcohol or drug addiction at hospitals as well as teenagers who are under supervision of substance abuse professionals. The subject of the research is the subjectiveness features of teenagers abusing psychoactive substances. The aim of the research is to study subjectiveness of teenagers abusing psychoactive substances. Noteworthy that this problem is viewed in terms of cultural and historical interpretation for the first time in psychological literature. The research was carried out in a 24-hour hospital division for children and teenagers at Altai Regional Drug Abuse Hospital an schools of Barnaul. 172 teenagers participated in the research. The research methods included testing using the Subjectiveness Inventory offered by M. Isakova. The questionnaire allows to diagnose the following parameters and indicators of subjectiveness: responsibility, freedom, overall self-reflection ability, reflection over choice, self-control and total subjectiveness indicator. The authors conclude that the above mentioned teenagers' subjectiveness is characterised with its components development disparity and has a number of singularities compared to teenagers who do not abuse psychoactive substances. Teenagers abusing psychoactive substances are less active in situations when they have to choose between alternatives, more impulsive, make random choices more frequently and proceed to actions without giving it an additional thought. School students who are not under supervision of substance abuse professionals demonstrate a better balanced structure of subjectiveness, and feel freer and ready to deal with life difficulties and act according to their views and values unlike hospital patients. As a conclusion, the authors undertline that preventive measures will be more effective if they create conditions for developing school children's subjectiveness.
Mordas E.S., Mikhaleva N.V. - Psychoanalytical Analysis of the Mental Development of Autistic Chldren: Historical Aspect pp. 66-89


Abstract: The subject of the research is the menal development of autistic children from the historical and medical points of view. Even though there is a great variety of theoretical and experimental concepts regarding autistic children, psychoanalytical aspect of the problem still needs to be clarified. In this research the authors give an overview of psychoanalytical concepts on the nature and development of autism offered by M. Maler, F. Taslin, L. Eisenberg (these are the concepts that have never been introduced in the Russian language before). The authors also provide an insight into L. Kanner's, E. Bleuler's, B. Bend's, C. Goldstein's, L. Bender's, B. Bettelheim's, M. Meltzer's, M. Klein's, D. Rosenfeld's, D. Winnicott's ideas. The research methods used by the authors are systematization, analysis and generalisation. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors provide an in-depth analysis of autism from the point of view of psychoanalysis. The conclusions are the following. 1. Autism as an inhereted genetic disease (L. Kanner and L. Eisenberg). 2. Autism as a life conditions when sensitivity and poor emotional contacts dominate; emegency response to the illusive trauma of the physical split experience (M. Maler and F. Taslin). 3. Autism as the terrible experience of the loss of an object; psychotic depression state (D. Winnicott). 4. Autistic disorders as a result of extreme situation when an individual was unable to influence the environment (B. Bettelheim). 5. Prerequisites for psychogenic autism may be acute affective disorders related to the child-parent relationship starting from the child's fetal life and caused by the mother's hostile reactions. 
Kadyrov R.V., Elzesser A.S., Bartkovskaya N.S. - Patientís anxiety at the different stages of genesis of myocardial infarction pp. 75-86


Abstract: The subject of this research is the anxiety of patients at different stages of genesis of myocardial infarction (MI). It is a proven fact that the high level of anxiety leads to reoccurrence and unfavorable course of disease both, in combination with other factors or regardless of them. However, the influence of separate aspects of anxiety into reoccurrence of MI remains insufficiently studied, which actualizes determination of the components of anxiety at different staged of emergence of this disease. The article presents a comparative analysis and description of the level of manifestation of various components of anxiety among the following empirical groups: 33 persons without myocardial infarction in past medical history, but in the group of risk by its genesis; 29 patients undergoing 2 to 5 days of hospital treatment for recovering after MI; 27 patients that have already received post-hospital therapy after MI. The observational group included 30 technically healthy persons. The following conclusions are formulated: 1) Anxiety components, such as asthenic, phobic, emotional discomfort are vivid among the patients who have survived MI, as well as persons in the risk group. However, an additional longitude research is required for proving the influence of anxiety into the genesis of myocardial infarction.2) The currently conducted rehabilitation of MI patients reduces the overall level of situational anxiety, practically avoiding such its components that in the future can prompt recurrence of MI. 3) High level of anxiety is characteristic to all IM patients. The recommended programs for prevention and rehabilitation should be focused on long-term reduction of the level of personal anxiety, such as cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy.
Yakovlev V.A. - Impact of Substance Abuse on Teenagers' Social Intelligence pp. 83-94


Abstract: The author of the article studies the impact of substance abuse on the social intelligence measurements demonstrated by teenagers. The teenagers were divided into the two groups depending on their age. The first group consisted of the children aged 14 - 16, and the second group was made up of children aged 16 - 18. All of them suffered from substance and drug abuse (including alcohol beverages, smoking of anasha, drugs of the opium group and stimulating pills). All teenagers were male.  The first group consisted of 30 people aged 14 - 16 years old and the second group was made up of 30 people aged 16 - 18 years old. Respondents of the first group had been suffering from substance abuse from one to two years and respondents of the econd group took drugs for 2 - 3 years. Social intelligence was measured by using the Guilford's and O'Sulliven method adjusted by E. Mikhailova. The results of research demostrate the difference in social intelligence measures in the two groups. This allows to prove the impact of drugs and substance on social intelligence depending on the length of abuse and age of the abuser. The results of research can be used for developing individual psychotherapeutic and training programs. 
Starosel'tseva O.V. - Criminal activity of the accused in grave crimes in the context of disorders in motivational and target levels of regulation of activity pp. 87-102


Abstract: The subject of this research is criminal activity of the accused in grave crimes in with various disorders in motivational and target levels of regulation of activity. Content of the concept of “regulation of activity” is reviewed. Attention is paid to the peculiarities of regulation of activity at the target and motivational levels among persons accused in grave crimes. The author analyzes the key characteristics of criminal activity in the context of various disorders in motivational and target levels of regulation of activity. The sampling involved 20 men aged from 20 to 58, average age 37.7 years, who are currently under the forensic psychological and psychological expertise. As a contrast, the survey involved a group of 24 men with socially normative behavior, who have never been held criminally liable. It is established that those accused in grave crimes more often were incapable to adequately correlate the subjective moments of activity with the objectively existing circumstances of actual reality, independently organize the process of goal-setting, and efficiently exercise the control function. The author also determined the key characteristics of criminal behavior in terms of disturbance of motivational and target levels of regulation of activity. The scientific novelty consists in the description of characteristics of criminal behavior of the persons accused in grave crimes with various disorders in motivational and target levels of regulation of activity. The obtained results may be used for solution of the questions of forensic psychological expertise, as well as in the course of correctional work with persons prone to unlawful behavior.
Pozdnyakova U.S. - Definition, Features and Forms of Deviant and Delinquent Behaviour of Children pp. 94-129


Abstract: The present research article is devoted to the definition, signs and forms of deviant and delinquent behavior of children as a form of abnormal behavior. The researcher analyzes different approaches to the definition of deviant and delinquent behavior of children and offers her own classification of these terms as well as definitions of these terms. The researcher also describes the main features of deviant and delinquent behavior of children and provides a classification of these features as well. The article contains the results of the analysis of the main forms of deviant and delinquent behavior of the underage. In her research the author uses different scientific research methods, in particular, opinion surveys, natural scientific method, forecasting method, statistical method, logical (aristotelian) method and empirical investigation method. The scientific importance and novelty of the research is the following: the researcher analyzes the definitions of deviant and delinquent behavior of the underage and offers her own definition of deviant behavior of the underage and delinquent behavior of the underage. The researcher also studies the main features of deviant and delinquent behavior and offers their classification as well as analyzes the main forms of deviant and delinquent behavior of children. 
Kharisova R.R., . - Types of Internal Picture of Diagnosis of Psychiatrists pp. 206-221
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to study the differences in subjective perception of illness by the two groups of doctors, psychiatrists and psychotherapists. As a hypothesis, the author suggests that there is an intraphychic phenomenon of a doctor's consciousness. The author introduces a new theoretical construct - 'internal picture of diagnosis'. This construct llows to describe a number of phenomena of psychiatrists' internal experience related to their interactions with patients. The author also suggests the following elements of the internal picture of diagnosis: intuitive, phenomenological, syndrome-nosological and emotional-conseptual pictures. The research involves new methods of studying intrapsychic structures of doctors' conciousness. The results of this research allow to define the types of internal picture of diagnosis depending on differences in professional activities of psychiatrists. 
Mordas E.S. - Psychological Nature of Female Homosexuality pp. 217-247
Abstract: The classical case of female homosexuality arises at the stage of sexual maturity because of the difficulties connected with an Oedipus complex. Two major factors influence the formation of female homosexuality: rejection of the heterosexual relations due to the castration complex and attractiveness of mother due to early fixation. Refusal of women from heterosexual communications represents the regression which is the actual reflection of  early relations with their mothers. Female homosexuality bears in itself archaism, ambivalence and intensity. Specific behavioural patterns, fears and conflicts of the early period of development become actual.
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